Few bands from the alternative era have not only survived, but thrived, like the Red Hot Chili Peppers. The Los Angeles group formed in 1983 and featured original members Anthony Kiedis (vocals), Flea (bass), Hillel Slovak (guitar), and Jack Irons (drums). Slovak tragically died of a heroin overdose in 1988, after which Irons also left the band. Slovak and Irons were ultimately replaced with John Frusciante (guitar) and Chad Smith (drums). The group’s first three albums, Red Hot Chili Peppers(1984), Freaky Styley(1985), and The Uplift Mofo Party Plan(1987), helped the group gain an underground following, yet failed to break through to the mainstream. These records did establish the Chili Peppers’ signature early sound, though, funky grooves coupled with a punk rock attitude. Mother’s Milk (1989) garnered critical praise for the mature, introspective nature of tracks like “Higher Ground” and “Knock Me Down”.
With the Rick Rubin-produced Blood Sugar Sex Magik(1991), the Red Hot Chili Peppers became rock stars for the masses. The confessional single “Under the Bridge” reached the #2 spot on the Billboard Hot 100 chart and became one of the defining alternative rock songs of the 1990s. Guitarist John Frusciante, not keen to deal with the band’s newfound stardom, abruptly left the group and was replaced by former Jane’s Addiction guitarist Dave Navarro. While their next album, One Hot Minute(1995), was a commercial success, its downtrodden lyrics and pseudo-psychedelic guitar sounds failed to impress critics. After Navarro’s departure from the group, the Chili Peppers were on the brink of splitting up. In 1998, though, Frusciante, fresh out of rehab, agreed to rejoin the band. Californication(1999) was the Chili Pepper’s big comeback, with three #1 Modern Rock singles and widespread critical acclaim. The album was more melodic and thematically unified than previous efforts. By the Way(2002) spawned five hit singles and saw the band continue their lyrical approach. The album was notable for the increased artistic presence of Frusciante, with the musician often layering multiple guitar parts and writing string arrangements for several songs. The band’s most recent effort, Stadium Arcadium(2006), was their most sprawling record to date, a two-disc set which spawned multiple hits.