Milton’s infernal majesty: Postmodern poetics within
Venom’s At War With Satan
Lee Barron
C&V
Autumn 2004

 

By thousands, angel on archangel rolled (Paradise Lost, Book VI, line 594).

Introduction

The Rough Guide to Rock states: “If you had to choose just one band as the main driving force behind the black metal scene, then Venom would have to figure pretty high on the charge sheet” (Buckley & Ellingham, 2003: 1135). This influence is acutely acknowledged by the various Venom tribute albums recorded throughout the 1990s, and especially the inclusion of the band’s vocalist\bassist Cronos on Dave Grohl’s 2004 Probot album, a homage to the ‘classic’ death\thrash metal bands of the 1980s. Consisting of the singer\bassist Cronos (Conrad Lant), guitarist Mantas (Jeff Dunn) and drummer Abaddon (Tony Bray); the heyday of the British, Newcastle Upon Tyne-based Venom was arguably between 1981 and 1985. It was within this period in which the band produced the key albums: Welcome To Hell, Black Metal, and At War With Satan. Now acknowledged as one of the key ‘New Wave Of British Heavy Metal’ bands, Venom would also influence the emergent heavy metal subgenre of thrash metal.

However, the critical and commercial disappointment of the 1985 Possessed album, blamed mainly on the album’s thin production values, meant that Venom were subsequently superseded by technically more sophisticated and heavier-sounding bands such as Metallica and Slayer (which would however both acknowledge Venom as an influence). Following Possessed, the band would release a live album and numerous compilations, record solo material, experience numerous line-up changes, and suffer generally from a lack of mainstream recognition, although the original line-up did reform in 2000 to record Resurrected.

At one level therefore, because of their status as heavy metal innovators, Venom, are worthy of discussion and re-visiting. However, the main subject of this short article is an analysis of Venom’s quasi-concept album, At War With Satan. This album was a significant moment in the recording history of the band in that it saw Venom attempt to move away from the perception that they were merely purveyors of crudely played ‘noise.’ At War With Satan saw Venom strive for a level of musical and lyrical sophistication that was quite distinct from earlier albums. I argue that At War With Satan represents something of a curio within black\thrash metal; a rock-opera, based upon Milton’s epic poem, Paradise Lost. In this regard, At War With Satan serves as a prime example of the postmodernist erasure of the boundaries between ‘high’ and ‘popular,’ or ‘low’ culture through the interweaving of popular music and classical literature.

Venom: Thrash Metal Innovators

From 1969 to 1972 has been variously identified as the period in which heavy metal emerged as a distinct musical genre. It was characterised initially by bands such as Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath, and then as the 1970s progressed, the likes of: AC/DC, KISS, Rush, Judas Priest, Thin Lizzy, Aerosmith, Motorhead, Saxon, Scorpions, and Iron Maiden (Arnett, 1995, Walser, 1993, Weinstein, 1991, Christie, 2003). Weinstein argues that the principle element of heavy metal is that as a musical genre it is persistently characterised by themes of chaos: “the absence or destruction of relationships, which can run from confusion, through various forms of anomaly, conflict, and violence, to death. Respectable society tries to repress chaos. Heavy metal brings its images to the forefront, empowering them with its vitalizing sound” (Weinstein, 1991: 38). Therefore, for Stuessy:

Today’s heavy metal is categorically different from previous forms of popular music. It contains the elements of hatred, a meanness of spirit. Its principal themes are…extreme violence, extreme rebellion, substance abuse, sexual promiscuity, and perversion and Satanism. I know personally of no form of popular music before which as had as one of its central elements the element of hatred (in Weinstein, 1991: 1-2).

In an equally disparaging assessment, Lester Bangs claimed that

Heavy-metal rock is nothing more than a bunch of noise; it is not music, it’s distortion – and that is precisely why its adherents find it appealing. Of all contemporary rock, it is the genre most closely identified with violence and aggression, rapine and carnage. Heavy metal orchestrates technological nihilism (in Shuker, 1994: 153).

Stussey and Bangs’ frank appraisal of heavy metal is however actually more appropriate for particular forms of the genre than others. One would be rather hard pressed to define the likes of Thin Lizzy, Aerosmith, Saxon, Rush and Scorpions as the sound of ‘technological nihilism.’ However, the early 1980s would see the emergence of a distinct subgenre that differed markedly from such mainstream metal acts. This period saw the rise of a number of bands that deliberately emphasised a more intense form of music with lyrics that centred upon more morbid themes. Subsequently:

A new term, “speed” or “thrash” metal, was coined to include the heavy metal subgenre of Metallica, Megadeth, Slayer, and other bands whose sound was distinctly more aggressive than even other heavy metal bands and whose lyrical themes were relentlessly pessimistic and angry (Arnett, 1995: 44).

However, this American form of speed/thrash was directly influenced by a number of NWOBHM [New Wave Of British Heavy Metal] groups such as Venom’ (Weinstein, 1991: 49). Formed in the late 1970s:

Many have compared Venom’s approach with that of punk rock, and there’s some validity to this. Technically, Venom stank. They were fast, rude and keen to upset the apple-cart with a Molotov cocktail of confrontational attitude and unpredictability. But while punks nursed a disingenuous desire for media approval, Venom clearly did not give a shit, remaining both unacceptable and unfashionable throughout their career (Baddeley, 1999: 125).

Consequently, Stussey and Bangs' critical condemnation of heavy metal fits Venom surprisingly accurately. Uncompromising, aggressive and frequently offensive, their music exhibited a chaotic and crude quality, with clear vestiges of ragged punk rock. For Christie, Venom were, “unquestionably the most extreme band of its time” (2003: 104); they were ‘vulgar and base, with Satanism as a vehicle for their course obsessions’ (Baddeley, 1999: 124). Whilst For Paul Elliot, of metal magazine Kerrang! the sound of Venom was (somewhat melodramatically): “The musical equivalent to the Earth splitting asunder and revealing a filthy, gaping maw to the Kingdom Below” (www.Metalstorm).

With regard to their own position, Venom perceived themselves as actively breaking away from more traditional heavy metal bands: ‘‘death metal,’ says Cronos, “is basically saying things that Sabbath didn’t have the balls to say. We are the Evil Dead to their Hammer Horror” (Herman, 2002: 202). Of the raw, belligerent sound of the band’s music, drummer Abaddon states that the first album, Welcome To Hell was recorded and mixed in four days: “Because of that we managed to get quite a lot of violence into the grooves” (Baddeley, 1999: 129). To emphasise the anti-social nature of Venom’s music, Cronos adds: “My criteria for if a song’s good or not is that I play it to me mam and dad. If they say, ‘Son, its fucking disgusting’, then I know it’s alright” (Herman, 2002: 202). One can see the validity of this assessment in that, although the devil is a lyrical and thematic mainstay, the band’s repertoire also includes drugs, murder, the supernatural and venereal disease.

Therefore, for a band infamous for lyrical crudity and musical limitation, Venom were not a band automatically expected to undertake the challenge and demands of the concept album. Yet this is exactly what their At War With Satan album would represent.

At War With Satan: Milton Meets Metal

The concept album, or ‘rock opera’ flourished in the late 1960s and 1970s with albums such as The Who’s Tommy, the Beatles’ Sgt Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band, David Bowie’s The Rise And Fall Of Ziggy Stardust & The Spiders From Mars, Mike Oldfield’s Tubular Bells, Rush’s 2112, Yes’ Tales From Topographic Oceans and Pink Floyd’s The Dark Side Of The Moon. With regard to format:

Concept albums (and rock operas) are unified by a theme,
which can be instrumental, compositional, narrative or
lyrical. In this form, the album changed from a collection of
heterogeneous songs into a narrative work with a single
theme, in which individual songs segue into one another
(Shuker 1998: 5).

Through the 1980s and 1990s, although the concept album gradually became less fashionable, the success of Queensryche’s Operation Mindcrime, Marilyn Manson’s Antichrist Superstar and Dream Theater’s Scenes from A Memory suggest that it has retained its commercial presence. The central characteristic of the concept album is one of musical sophistication and dexterity, aligned with lyrics often of a distinctly mystical, mysterious or literary character. Hence, for Venom: “The 1984 release of At War With Satan was something of a departure – with one side of the album dedicated to a Satanic rock opera – but it was still chaotic and crass by mainstream standards” (Baddeley, 1999: 125).

With respect to theoretical evaluation, in his postmodern analysis of Iron Maiden’s concept album, Seventh Son of a Seventh Son, Walser (1993) utilises Jameson to argue that the album represents an example of pastiche. This assessment stems form the album’s mixing of the Biblical Book of Revelations with various ‘parareligious’ subjects such as astrology, alchemy, and witchcraft. I would argue that also this aspect of Jameson’s evaluation of postmodernism is especially relevant to Venom’s At War With Satan album. Although notoriously difficult to precisely define (Delanty, 1997), there is some consensus that postmodernism is the celebration of the popular (Freccero, 1999) involving the mixing of diverse cultural texts (Lemert, 1997) and foregrounding play, anarchy and combination (Harvey, 1989). In terms of recognised aspects of postmodernist culture, Connor argues that:

Rock music has a claim to be the most representative of postmodern cultural forms. For one thing, it embodies to perfection the central paradox of contemporary mass culture, in the fact of its unifying global reach and influence on the one hand combined with its tolerance and engendering of pluralities of styles, media and ethnic identities on the other (1997: 207).

For Jameson (1991), a primary aspect of postmodernism is the effacement of boundaries or separations most notably the division between high culture and mass or popular culture, battlelines which are traceable (at least) to F.R. Leavis and subsequently the Frankfurt School (Storey, 1997). And there can be perhaps no greater musical example of this process than within Venom’s At War With Satan.

The overtly satanic qualities of the album are characteristic of Venom’s general output, and indeed, a central thematic trait within heavy metal per se. As Weinstein argues:

Heavy metal’s major source for its imagery and rhetoric of chaos is religion, Particularly the Judeo-Christian tradition. Although other religions speak to chaos, Judeo-Christian culture nourished the creators of heavy metal and their core audience. The Book of Revelations, that unique apocalyptic vision in the New Testament, is a particularly rich source of imagery for heavy metal lyrics (1991: 39).

Thus, “the devil is frequently mentioned in heavy metal lyrics because he serves as shorthand for the forces of disorder. Hell, as both the home of the devil and the place of punishment for those who transgress, is used in heavy metal lyrics as a synonym for chaos itself” (Weinstein, 1991: 41). As the various track listings of Venom albums reveal, they are saturated with satanic references: Welcome To Hell, In League With Satan, In Nomine Satanus and The 7 Gates Of Hell. Indeed, Venom have been accused of transmitting to fans, hidden satanic messages via backmasking within such songs (Cloonan, 1996). With regard to origins, the devilish elements within Venom’s lyrics and visual themes are drawn from horror film imagery, and the cloven-hoofed “Satanic goat first drawn by nineteenth century magician Eliphas Levi” (Schreck, 2001: 128); whilst the band’s stage names are culled from Anton LaVey’s Satanic Bible. However, the primary influences within At War With Satan are different.1

At War With Satan is quite specific in its references: John Milton’s figure of Satan and the angelic war precipitating his fall, as played out within Paradise Lost. At one level, like many other heavy metal bands, At War With Satan takes The Book of Revelations and the theme of biblical Armageddon. However, the details of the tracks depict very specifically, the war between the angels of heaven and hell in which:

On the second day of creation a tremendous battle took place between two factions of angelic beings. The first group was created by God and given the Grace to pursue goodness. The second was equal in strength but were devoid of God’s Grace, and thus had the ability to choose sin. Michael, at the helm of the good angels, conquered the sinners from heaven, among them Lucifer, who took with him one-third of the legions of angels (Lewis and Oliver, 1996: 159).

However, The Book of Revelation does not provide any real detail concerning this heavenly conflict. Rather, the most dramatic depiction of this war is contained within Milton’s Paradise Lost, and it is aspects of this epic poem that At War With Satan clearly evokes and subverts.

Consisting of twelve books, written in blank verse, the narrative of Paradise Lost can be encapsulated thus:

God (through the Son) makes all creation; the angels fight a war and Satan’s forces establish an empire; Satan falls to hell, rallies his troops, makes the trip to Earth, seduces Eve, and flies back; Adam and Eve are born, learn what they are to aim for, fall, recover themselves, and leave Paradise; the Son concludes the war in heaven, comes to Earth to judge and mediate, and returns to heaven (Webber, 1979: 158).

Paradise Lost is a mystical journey through a series of fantastic worlds (Curry, 1966), and although rooted in Christian doctrines is itself the product of borrowings from numerous religious and cultural traditions on the part of Milton (Carey, 1999; West, 1955). However, it is the figure of Satan and the angelic war in which provides the centre-point for both Paradise Lost and At War With Satan. For Bloom: “the most extraordinary portrait of any angel that ever we have had or will have is of Milton’s Satan, who employs his freedom to damn himself titanically” (1997: 38). Alternatively, Carey describes him as “a paranoiac. He is obsessed with his own importance. He cannot reciprocate positive emotions, and needs to believe that he is persecuted. He chooses to live in a world of fantasy in which he can make himself supreme” (1969: 89). It is this character we first meet within Paradise Lost, ‘the infernal Serpent’ and his rebel angel forces:

Hurled headlong flaming from the ethereal sky
With hideous ruin and combustion down
To bottomless perdition, there to dwell
In adamantine chains and penal fire,
Who durst defy the omnipotent to arms
(Book I, lines 34-49)

Once recovered within this world, Satan declares this prepared Hell to be his dominion, declaring that ‘To reign is worth ambition though in hell: Better to reign in hell, than serve in heaven’ (Book I, lines 262-263). Calling together his chief followers, Moloch, Chemos, Baalim, Ashtaroth, Thummuz, Dagon, Rimmon and Belial, they erect the city of Pandaemonium: ‘the high capital of Satan’ and plan for revenge. And it is within the city of Satan that the narrative of At War With Satan begins, with Lucifer similarly addressing his fallen angels, and planning a vengeful attack against Heaven.

Significantly, Milton’s Satan is not the pitiable, ice-bound fallen angel conjured by Dante, rather he is the eternal rebel and adversary against God and humanity (Hill, 1977, Burton Russell, 1977, Stanford, 1997). Satan is accused of the ‘sins’ of pride and of envy of the Son of God. This serves as the catalyst for Satan’s sedition and the beginning of the angelic war, a war Satan loses, resulting in his ejection from Heaven, and subsequent attempt to destroy humanity via the tempting of Eve. However, as many Milton scholars recognize, Satan’s actions are futile, there can be no victory against an omnipotent God. Yet Satan still pursues a course of resistance. It is this rebellious, defiant aspect of Milton’s Satan that Baddeley (1999) argues has rendered him as such an attractive icon for heavy metal performers and aficionados. Such music therefore strikes a chord with subcultural youth groupings which, for however short-lived, hold counter-cultural attitudes and beliefs (Hall and Jefferson, 1976; Hebdige, 1979; Brake, 1980; Muncie, 1984). From Arnett’s ethnographic research amongst young followers of heavy metal, one fan of Slayer, a band that also extensively employs satanic imagery, reported that he admired the band because of their anti-social subversive quality:

I like the music. It’s so full of energy. And it’s really aggressive…[They write songs about] problems in the world and stuff like that…I’m a musician, so naturally I listen to the music. But I also listen to the lyrics, because that’s the thing about heavy metal. It exposes a lot of problems. It tells the truth about what’s really going on in the world, not just a bunch of bull (Arnett, 1995: 59).

Such an insubordinate attitude is evident in the ideology and actions of Paradise Lost’s Satan. However, it is Milton’s description of the war in Heaven, the Satanic act of insurgence which furnishes At War With Satan with its central conceit. Within Book VI of Paradise Lost Milton creates plains swarming with two vast opposing armies of armoured angels facing each other and engaging in physical combat. The collision motif within this conflict is paramount as the battle commences:

So under fiery cope together rushed
Both battles main, with ruinous assault
And inextinguishable rage; all heaven
Resounded, and had earth been then, all earth
Had to her centre shook. What wonder? When
Millions of fierce encountering angels fought
On either side, the least of whom could wield
These elements, and arm him with the force
Of all their regions: how much more of power
Army against army numberless to raise
Dreadful combustion warring, and disturb,
Though not destroy, their happy native seat
(Book VI, lines 215-226).

The descriptions suggested here is that of the heavens shaking with thunderous attacks as two vast celestial armies clash in a super-human contest in a fantastic confrontation involving thousands of angels and hand-to-hand combat between Satan and archangels. However, the tide is turned when the Son of God sweeps into the fray on board an angel-drawn chariot to lead the final assault and drive the legions of fallen angels out of Heaven. As well as the fall from grace through pride and envy of the Son, Satan and his rebel angels are literally driven over the edge of heaven and into the abyss.

At War With Satan directly borrows elements from the poem, explicitly the rebellion of Satan and the conflict between the fallen angels and the angelic armies of God. However, Venom also add a radical twist. As Christie argues, At War With Satan saw Venom “indulging every excess” producing an “irony-laden story line [in which] demons invade heaven and toss out the angels” (2003: 105). At War With Satan recasts Paradise Lost to the extent that it is now the rebellious forces of Satan that are now triumphant. The army of Satan rises up from Pandaemonium to storm the gates of Heaven and sack the ‘city’ until ‘White marble walls bleed red.’ The theme of diabolic vengeance against the forces of heaven is explicitly articulated in the lyric: ‘The Warriors gather slowly around the Sacred City, Hell\Satan screams a vengance\On the land his Angels fell.’ This lyric reflects clearly the tenor of Paradise Lost, however the ‘postmodern’ twist is that: ‘Frenzied Demons\ Angels Cries\Lucifer commands the Orgy\Molten Mayhem one thousand lies\Heaven fails to hold tranquility.’ Within Venom’s version of the angel war, it is Satan who constructs an infernal empire, not to make the horrors of Hell bearable, but from which to invade Heaven and destroy God’s forces. Thus, the album fulfils the ‘transgressive’ chaotic characteristic Weinstein ascribes to heavy metal.

The structure of At War With Satan is reminiscent of Rush’s 2112 and Hemispheres, in which the conceptual aspect of the album only covers (in the original vinyl format) the first side of the recording, sustained within a single track for twenty minutes. The remaining songs: Rip Ride, Genocide, Cry Wolf, Stand Up (And Be Counted), Women, Leather And Hell and Aaaaaaarrghh, although unrelated to the At War With Satan track, nevertheless maintain its intensity and also in places exhibit supernatural themes. The apocalyptic, demoniacal quality of the album is established from the outset through the album cover which is designed to simulate a leather-bound tome entitled The Book of Armageddon and adorned with an inverted cross positioned between the album title and band name. Furthermore, the sleeve’s quasi-mystical, doomy ethos is heightened by the ersatz Macbeth text inscribed on the back cover:

Now that we three
meet again…
Thru thunder, lightening
and the rain…
Now the hurdey
burdey’s done…
And the battle has
been won.

The actual music of At War With Satan is preceded by an appropriately ominous thunder and rain sound effect. As this effect fades, this is replaced by a single note continuously played on bass, an instrument used within heavy metal music, argues Arnett to “create a sense of chaos and doom” (Arnett, 1995: 43). Then the guitar begins with a chugging riff forming a musical passage which will become a leitmotif throughout the album. As vocalist Cronos screams out the first lyric, the drums begin in earnest tempo, and the concept commences. Although not broken down into separately titled sections, a motif common to many concept albums, At War With Satan still steadily moves through various moods and passages, in a manner designed to identify the various ‘chapters’ of the tale.

Musically, At War With Satan for the most part consists of relentless, rumbling bass, driving, pounding drumbeats, growling vocals and heavy guitar riffs alternating with screaming solos. Only a short mid-section in which calm briefly settles breaks this aggression in the form of a passage played on acoustic guitar featuring ethereal, female singing. However, it is the lyrical content that is most significant because the lyrics of At War With Satan consistently suggest Miltonic influences. Words and phrases such as: angels and archangels, the Lamb of God, Lucifer and the city of Pandaemonium are all threaded throughout the track, with the music serving as a brutal counterpoint. For instance, at one point, the sound of grinding instruments is layered with vocal screams and grunts, sonically simulating the sounds of the angelic battle. However, lest we forget that the album is a work of pastiche, the keen listener is suddenly not so subtly reminded that they are experiencing a Venom album when the poetical reverie of the album is somewhat shattered by the distinctly un-Miltonic cry of: ‘Bomb the bastards!’ shouted out by Cronos to signify the first wave of Satan’s attack against God’s angels.

The album reaches it’s most (melo)dramatic and portentous moment comes in a spoken word section. Slowing for a mournful bass riff, accompanied by martial drumming, the song soon erupts again as the guitar recommences, Cronos cries out ‘Armageddon!’ This passage lyrically and musically is intended to convey the destruction of Heaven, and following a brief period of ‘heavy’ music; the tempo soon slows again as the track enters the ‘poetical’ section. This sequence consists of the lyrics being spoken, instead of sung, although the words are conveyed in an appropriate distorted ‘demonic’ voice, against the background of minimalist bass, sparse drums, and a mournful female voice wailing out airy notes in stark contrast to the rasping narration. The purpose of this segment is to portray the aftermath of the angelic war, the outcome of which is revealed by the first lyric: ‘Satan laughs.’ Satan is the victor, and significantly, it is within this part of the album that Satan is explicitly described as a winged fallen angel, a portrait that brings to mind Gustave Dore’s illustrations of Satan for Paradise Lost, whereby Satan possesses “bat-like wings and possessing cloven hooves” (Lewis and Oliver, 1996).

At War With Satan overflows with quasi-poetical, but rather lurid lines such as: ‘Damnation has sunk its talons deep into the womb of Utopia\Spilling forth great streams of virginal purity and bliss.’ Whilst such is the military success of the rebel angels that upon the throne of God now sits Satan, whilst rape and destruction is being waged throughout the expanse of Heaven. Indeed, Heaven in now reduced to a ruin, roiling in its ‘death throes.’ Here then, At War With Satan becomes the epitome of heavy metal fantasy whereby the forces it is the forces of evil which are triumphant whilst the Manichean converse, those of ‘good’ are vanquished.

Accordingly, within At War With Satan, it is now the archangel Gabriel and his exhausted followers who fall from the sky, reversing the fall of Satan and the rebel angels within Paradise Lost. It is God’s angels who descend down into hell, where they lie, with: ‘Their broken, blood-stained wings’ on the banks of the River Styx. However, all is not lost. The fallen angels, drunk with celebration at their victory, fail to acknowledge any possible remaining threat from Gabriel. So, rallying his remaining angels, Gabriel launches a counter-attack, and the forces of Heaven are once more ‘At war with Satan’. As this phrase is cried out, the throbbing bass and roaring guitar riff that initiated the album, once again begins, now serving as the album’s coda. The concept of At War With Satan therefore comes full circle, as the war recommences and the song slowly fades out, leaving the angels locked in battle.

Conclusion

Venom’s At War With Satan is Milton by way of horror movie/pulp fiction theatricality, with a heavy dose of heavy metal cliché. The album is musically and lyrically excessive, hoary, and raucous; qualities perfectly befitting a band once described as “NWOBHM rejects” (Christie, 2003: 104). However, compared to their previous output, At War With Satan is also something of an exception for Venom. It represents an adventurous and wholly unexpected foray into the realm of the concept album, an exercise that saw the band actively stretch their musical and lyrical abilities far beyond the level of previous recordings.

Moreover, with regard to the album’s primary inspiration, Paradise Lost, Hill states that for the contemporary reader “the poem is there for any reader to interpret. We may think of Milton as a forward-looking genius who somehow leapt out of his own time and believed in the supremacy of romantic love, or in the wickedness of the Christian God, or whatever suits contemporary fashions” (1977: 355). In light of such textual openness, within At War With Satan, Venom create their own particular polysemic version, borrowing certain aspects and re-working them; in their case, taking the ‘wicked God’ interpretation, and elevating Satan to heroic heights. And it is worth noting that Venom is not alone. Milton’s Paradise Lost has also provided musical inspiration for other musical projects, such as ex-Misfits vocalist, Glen Danzig’s album Black Aria, and Gary Numan’s Exile.

Ultimately, At War With Satan stands as a supreme example of cultural pastiche. It is an association between, on the one hand, unsophisticated and vulgar heavy metal, and on the other, one of the most esteemed and critically lauded classical examples from the literary canon. A starker, more incongruous blending is difficult to imagine. But that, of course, is the very essence of the postmodern.


Notes

1. Many bands that employ satanic motifs do so in a light-hearted, thematic manner, However, although beyond the scope of this article, the reader should be aware that there have been a number of ‘black metal’ bands, particularly located in Scandinavian countries, that have taken the Satanist ideology seriously. So much so that band members and fans have committed `criminal activities such as church desecration and even murder. For discussions of such bands, see Moynihan and Soderlind (2003) Lords of Chaos: The Bloody Rise of the Satanic Metal Underground; and Baddeley (1999) Lucifer Rising: Sin, Devil Worship and Rock ‘n’ Roll.



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Lee Barron
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