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“Cancion Mixteca”

¡Qué lejos estoy del suelo donde he nacido!       
inmensa nostalgia invade mi pensamiento        
y al verme tan solo y triste cual hoja al viento
How far I am from the land where I was born
Immense sadness fills my thoughts
I see myself so alone and so sad
Like a leaf in the wind

  —José López Alavés

Director Cary Fukunaga has been making headlines these past few months. If it’s not his rumored love affair with Michelle Williams that keeps him on the radar of gossip journalists all over the world, it’s his well-received adaptation of Jane Eyre, starring Mia Wasikowska, Michael Fassbender, and Judi Dench that keeps him in the spotlight. This star-studded cast is quite a change from his directorial debut, Sin Nombre, for which he contractually arranged the cast to consist entirely of Central Americans.

Fukunaga won the Best Director Award at the 2009 Sundance Festival for his human portrayal of illegal immigration, one of the most divisive and vexing issues in American society and politics today. Nevertheless, Sin Nombre still has not gotten the attention it deserves. It paints a picture of migration that is more realistic than a lot of documentaries have managed to, even though it at times idealizes the benefits of migration.

cover art

Sin Nombre

Director: Cary Fukunaga
Cast: Edgar Flores, Paulina Gaitan, and others

(Focus Features; US theatrical: ; UK theatrical: 19 Jun 2009)

The story traces the unlikely alliance between Willy, a Mexican youngster and member of the Mara Salvatrucha gang known as El Casper to his friends, and Sayra, a Honduran girl who is on the way to the US with her father to join his new family there. They find themselves relying on each other as they make the dangerous trip on a freight train to the US border, as Willy is on the run after murdering his local gang leader in an act of revenge, and Sayra has become separated from her father and uncle and is vulnerable as a lone girl on a male-dominated train.

While contemporary debates on migration often revolve around the construction of the “illegal immigrant” (either entirely vilified, most prominently perhaps in 2006’s conservative documentary Border War, or victimized) and the impact of these immigrants on particularly the United States, Sin Nombre shifts the focus to the hardships the migrants themselves have to endure on the route from Central America to the US and the grief they experience when abandoning their homeland and relatives for an uncertain future. It does so in an uncompromising way, acknowledging the wide diversity of people that seeks entry into the US for a range of motives; from transnational gangs to broken families, it becomes clear through Sin Nombre that the discussion of immigrants as a monolithic group that should either be banned altogether or embraced as a whole is highly ineffective and unproductive.

The role of the US in regulating borders, not only the US-Mexican one, but also by extension the southern border of Mexico by paying the Mexican government to secure their border from Central American immigrants, is problematic: the US has introduced factories that have uprooted much of the population, but fails to take any form of responsibility for this.

The casting of local actors was only one of the ways in which Fukunaga tried to make his depiction of immigration as authentic as possible. The result was a mix of experienced actors, such as Paulina Gaitan, who plays the female lead, Sayra, complete newcomers like Edgar Flores, who plays male lead Willy aka El Casper, and migrants who feature in the film as extras. Fukunaga actually travelled on the trains himself and talked extensively with migrants, and parts of the film are even filmed on the train.

The above-quoted lyrics, from José López Alavés’ 1934’s “Cancion Mixteca”, was another way for Fukunaga to ensure that his film would have a realistic quality; he uses only traditional musical styles of the regions the film is set in, and as such strongly refocuses the discourses surrounding immigration. The film is based within the discourse of migration on the American continent, and it’s only within this context that the codes (such as the wide prevalence of the myth of the American Dream) can be decoded: the love story of Sayra and El Casper is just the top layer, as the real story is migration and the increasing interconnectedness of people and economies on the American continent. It’s insignificant that Sayra is Honduran and Casper Mexican (as is further evidenced by the fact that Paulina Gaitan is in fact Mexican and Edgar Flores Honduran), as it’s their attempt to reach America that unites them, and their nationalities are never an obstruction for identification with one another.

In fact, the allure of the United States on Latin American immigrants is so strong that not even statistics of failure are able to deconstruct the myth, and Sin Nombre accurately shows that migration occurs for a wide array of reasons, that are not exclusively economic. The film opens with a shot of Casper in his impoverished living conditions, a neighborhood of one-story concrete homes, looking at a poster of a green landscape. In the script, Fukunaga writes that the poster represents Texas. For Casper, Texas is the promised land, an escape from his misery and the site of his dreams of climbing the social ladder: “Near a highway in Texas, I saw the factory where they make [planes]. It had this huge sign, like a globe, all lit up and bright. Man, I wanted to climb it,” he tells Sayra.  His admiration for the advanced technologies that he has seen while in the United States contributes to the myth of the country as a refuge, a place of unlimited possibilities, where he cannot only literally climb a globe, but rise figuratively, as well.

He’s not the only one who believes in the myth, as hundreds of Central Americans each day gather at train yards to start their journey. Capitalism and the hope of improvement pervade all Central American countries equally: Smiley, the youngest member of the Mara Salvatrucha, presents Casper with a bag full of stolen portable CD-players, MP3-players, and a digital camera that for Casper soon becomes his only keepsake of his happy life with girlfriend Martha Marlen. Besides these commodities, it’s the American dollars of her father Horatio that get Sayra to the US-Mexican border. 

“Not half these people are going to make it,” Horacio tells his daughter. “But we will.” This positive attitude is present in all migrants featured in the film, who are convinced that they will be one of the few success stories in a slew of failures.

The film’s producers are equally invested in the idea of immigration as an indispensible good, for both migrants and the capitalist system: “The world—the economic situation—demands that labor comes from different places, but there’s no rules, no protection, no legality for people that just want to work,” executive producer Gael Garcia Bernal remarked. (From the official Sin Nombre Press Pack by Giorgia Lo Savio, Revolver Entertainment Group, August 2009 ) Bernal hints at the fact that the capitalist system is based on the concept of turnover: as Melissa S. Wright has argued, workers are commoditized as variable capital “The Dialectics of Still Life: Murder, Women, and Maquiladoras” , Public Culture, Fall of 2009). In this role, they are regarded as producing extra value on top of their labor for companies, but are discarded when their resources are dried out (185). It’s only through flexibility that the means of production can be perpetuated, as industries—especially those that require manual work—depend on a constant availability of labor to fill in for the vacancies through turnover.

However, Bernal’s remark about immigrants who “just want to work” is deconstructed by the film itself. “I was a baby when he left for the North,” Sayra says of her father.  Her father’s second wife, Yessenia, is already living in New Jersey, and he illegally lived in the US for ten years as well, but was deported, and is now seeking to reunite with his children and wife (Fukunaga screenplay). Therefore, the migration of Sayra, her uncle Orlando and her father needs to be framed within the network theory, developed by Douglas S. Massey (Spittel, Mike. :Testing Network Theory through an Analysis of Migration from Mexico to the United States”, Center for Demography and Ecology). Migration of a family or community member can be utilized to facilitate knowledge and subsequent migration from more members of the family or community to a particular destination (7). Sayra and her uncle can rely on Horacio’s actual migrant experience, and are forced to mesmerize Yessenia’s telephone number, as she is willing to assist them once they arrive in New Jersey.

Suzanne Enzerink is an MA student in American Studies at the University of Groningen, The Netherlands, and will be a visiting graduate student at Brown University from August-March. She has written extensively on cultural theory and has a particular interest in the American South and film. For her BA thesis, she was able to combine all three, and wrote on the imbrication of race, class, gender and nationality in D.W. Griffith's The Birth of a Nation and Victor Fleming's Gone With The Wind. During a semester at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, she wrote film reviews for The Daily Tar Heel.

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