Games

Video Game Parodies

The general traits of a video game parodying another video game are simplification of both content and design to show how inane the bare bones interaction of that game really is.

Video games have often been used to parody or satirize social conventions. Whether it’s something as simple as recreating a shoe being thrown at George Bush or a satirical representation of how to operate a Fast Food chain, these games use the power of interaction to make their commentary more tangible. People have been making up games and playing this way for centuries. An excellent book by Mary Flanagan, Critical Play, explores the history of this practice and outlines several criteria for assessing games that are critically engaging an aspect of society. She writes, “Critical play means to create or occupy play environments and activities that represent one or more questions about aspects of human life . . . Criticality in play can be fostered in order to question an aspect of a game’s “content,” or an aspect of a play scenario’s function that might otherwise be considered a given or necessary" (6).

Something like the McDonald’s Game (cited above) is a good example of both content criticism and a questionable system. It takes a business sim and uses that system to outline the corruption of a corporation. The only way to “win” the game is to be corrupt, and all of the content uses modern examples and recognizable parodies to do so. That’s a unique example though, most games are either criticizing the content placed in their system or criticizing the system itself by inducing absurd behavior. Flanagan goes on to explain critical play through one of the original forms of critical play via doll houses, “The enactment of critical play exhibits at least three kinds of action: unplaying, re-dressing or reskinning, and rewriting” (32). "Unplaying" is acting out forbidden scenes with the doll. "Re-dressing" is changing the doll’s appearance or items for darker play, like making funeral items and caskets. "Rewriting" is fan fiction and the proliferation of people writing stories about the doll funerals.

On a side note, I ought to distinguish the difference between a satire and a parody. There are a couple of different arguments about their meaning, but for the sake of this post, I’m just plucking the first coherent one that Google gives me. Over on DifferenceBetween.net, a post explains, “Though both parody and satire conveys humor, they impart different roles in society. Satire stands for a social or political change. It depicts an anger or frustration trying to make the subject palatable. Satire can be termed as humor and anger combined together. Parody is really meant for mocking and it may or may not incite the society. Parody is just pure entertainment and nothing else. It does not have a direct influence on the society” ("Difference Between Parody and Satire", DifferenceBetween.net). So, for our purposes, a parody is supposed to be funny by mimicking something in a ridiculous way, and a satire is supposed to be funny and also induce reflection by mimicking something out of context.

Any game that is focusing on larger social issues tends to inherently become a satire. This is a kind of accidental benefit of the uncanny valley in games. Anytime that you reduce a complex social system like immigration or sexism into a game, it is automatically drawn out of any recognizable context. The system, as Flanagan notes, becomes the commentary by redressing a previous game and thus acting more like an analogy. A great example is Hey Baby, where men cat call and follow you around an urban environment while you shoot them. It’s conceptually an FPS with the content “re-dressed” to make play be about a social issue instead of the usual topics in games. What is interesting about video games is when they are mocking themselves. A system mocking another system isn’t going to have the same inherent uncanny valley issue because it was never real to begin with. It’s also inherently going to be a parody for the same reason, deconstructing a depiction of reality can only raise awareness of the depiction itself.

I haven’t had the chance to play Ian Bogost’s Cow Clicker, which is a spoof of Facebook games like Farmville, but that’s the latest big parody making the rounds. For this post, I’m just going to rattle off a few greatest hits and then focus on several games mocking the same genre. One of the most popular parodies is You Have To Burn The Rope. Acting as a mockery of overly easy gameplay, the game explains everything you have to do to win before you even enter the room. Obviously most games try to obfuscate things a little bit, but playing them still amounts to what You Have To Burn The Rope is depicting. Gameplay itself is much easier because you can’t die and there is no way to win except by burning the rope. It’s an example of Flanagan’s re-dressing of a game, but this time the game removes all the content distortion and design complexity to mock the system of hints that guide players through a game. It simplifies the game’s content and design to just depict the bare bones system. Another game that does this would be Marcus Richert’s Passage in 10 Seconds. Same idea as above, except now we’re targeting a specific game and including a poke at the extreme enthusiasm Passage received when it was released.

The general traits of a video game parodying another video game are simplification of both content and design to show how inane the bare bones interaction of that game really is. The good ones keep both intact so that interplay remains recognizable. Even within those guidelines, there’s a surprising amount of variation because artistically the games are all struggling to find a way to depict the basic interaction -- except you feel stupid while doing it. Three examples of games mocking RPG conventions highlight the variation. First up is Progress Quest, in which you basically hit start and the game plays itself. A series of charts and bars fill and adjust as your character gathers quests and kills critters like one normally does in an RPG, but the system highlights how arbitrary an RPG is because in either game there is no real choices to be made. You have to play the game a specific way, and by removing almost all interaction and content, you become aware of how dull this interaction really is at the core. Another example is Progress Wars, which goes so far as to describe itself as being “like Progress Quest for people who aren’t old”. The big difference is that the game incorporates clicking a button constantly so that the action becomes even more tedious.

A more recent parody is Synopsis Quest, which shifts the focus from mocking an RPG’s combat and focuses on the generic interactive moments that exist in JRPGs. Get on the airship, talk to the princess, or solve the block puzzle are all reduced to simple one minute exchanges that break up the moments that Progress Wars and Progress Quest are lampooning. I consider it the better of these parodies because it mocks the dynamic between design and content instead of just one or the other. You just watch text scroll by in Progress Quest. You never get a chance to really interact with it besides clicking a button. In Synopsis Quest, the interaction is still present, just simplified to tiny bursts of archetypal scenes in a JRPG.

There are other ways to mock a game besides simplification. You can also add subversive content or exaggerate the design. Many modern games, particularly multiplayer titles, now drag out their playtime by making you play for upgrades so that you can use all the weapons available in them. Nintendo would be one of the biggest offenders in this area, but even games like Modern Warfare 2 use unlockables in this way. Game designer Tony’s hilarious parody using exaggerated design is Upgrade Complete. You don’t just unlock weapons in the game. You have to unlock everything from music to the actual menu buttons. It exaggerates the design out to such a level of absurdity that you don’t even upgrade things that are involved in the actual gameplay.

An example of someone tweaking content is Marcus Richert’s You Only Live Once, which starts off as a Mario parody but with one exception. When you hit continue after you die, you don’t come back to life. Instead, it shows the events that follow the normal game "conclusion." The police arrive, monsters are arrested, and eventually your corpse is taken out by an ambulance. Given what accepted gaming conventions death and rebirth are in this medium, the parody of breaking that norm alone is enough to get a laugh out of the player.

Finally, while most people probably don’t think of these games as parodies when they play them, another form of parody can simply be amplifying the difficulty of a game. Consider two different takes on Tetris that both find unique ways to parody the game’s system. In First Person Tetris, the screen rotates as you rotate blocks, becoming increasingly disorienting and making the player prone to motion sickness. The game’s challenge is to see how long you can go without vomiting. Another example is Hatetris, which only gives you the z-block and challenges the player to figure out how to make even one line connect with such limited resources. Like other parodies, these are simplifications or clever additions that allow a player to focus on the core interaction, but here they carefully change the nature of that exchange. The challenge of Tetris has always been figuring out where to put the next block, making that process more difficult makes the player all the more aware of that fact. It’s a strong parody because, like Synopsis Quest, it keeps the interaction intact instead of just providing design or content individually. This is what lies at the heart of any video game parody: drawing attention to a video game trope by any means and getting the player to laugh at its silliness.

In Americana music the present is female. Two-thirds of our year-end list is comprised of albums by women. Here, then, are the women (and a few men) who represented the best in Americana in 2017.

If a single moment best illustrates the current divide between Americana music and mainstream country music, it was Sturgill Simpson busking in the street outside the CMA Awards in Nashville. While Simpson played his guitar and sang in a sort of renegade-outsider protest, Garth Brooks was onstage lip-syncindg his way to Entertainer of the Year. Americana music is, of course, a sprawling range of roots genres that incorporates traditional aspects of country, blues, soul, bluegrass, etc., but often represents an amalgamation or reconstitution of those styles. But one common aspect of the music that Simpson appeared to be championing during his bit of street theater is the independence, artistic purity, and authenticity at the heart of Americana music. Clearly, that spirit is alive and well in the hundreds of releases each year that could be filed under Americana's vast umbrella.

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Features

The Best Country Music of 2017

still from Midland "Drinkin' Problem" video

There are many fine country musicians making music that is relevant and affecting in these troubled times. Here are ten of our favorites.

Year to year, country music as a genre sometimes seems to roll on without paying that much attention to what's going on in the world (with the exception of bro-country singers trying to adopt the latest hip-hop slang). That can feel like a problem in a year when 58 people are killed and 546 are injured by gun violence at a country-music concert – a public-relations issue for a genre that sees many of its stars outright celebrating the NRA. Then again, these days mainstream country stars don't seem to do all that well when they try to pivot quickly to comment on current events – take Keith Urban's muddled-at-best 2017 single "Female", as but one easy example.

Nonetheless, there are many fine country musicians making music that is relevant and affecting in these troubled times. There are singers tackling deep, universal matters of the heart and mind. Artists continuing to mess around with a genre that can sometimes seem fixed, but never really is. Musicians and singers have been experimenting within the genre forever, and continue to. As Charlie Worsham sings, "let's try something new / for old time's sake." - Dave Heaton

10. Lillie Mae – Forever and Then Some (Third Man)

The first two songs on Lillie Mae's debut album are titled "Over the Hill and Through the Woods" and "Honky Tonks and Taverns". The music splits the difference between those settings, or rather bears the marks of both. Growing up in a musical family, playing fiddle in a sibling bluegrass act that once had a country radio hit, Lillie Mae roots her songs in musical traditions without relying on them as a gimmick or costume. The music feels both in touch with the past and very current. Her voice and perspective shine, carrying a singular sort of deep melancholy. This is sad, beautiful music that captures the points of view of people carrying weighty burdens and trying to find home. - Dave Heaton



9. Sunny Sweeney – Trophy (Aunt Daddy)

Sunny Sweeney is on her fourth album; each one has felt like it didn't get the attention it deserved. She's a careful singer and has a capacity for combining humor and likability with old-fashioned portrayal of deep sadness. Beginning in a bar and ending at a cemetery, Trophy projects deep sorrow more thoroughly than her past releases, as good as they were. In between, there are pills, bad ideas, heartbreak, and a clever, true-tearjerker ballad voicing a woman's longing to have children. -- Dave Heaton



8. Kip Moore – Slowheart (MCA Nashville)

The bro-country label never sat easy with Kip Moore. The man who gave us "Somethin' 'Bout a Truck" has spent the last few years trying to distance himself from the beer and tailgate crowd. Mission accomplished on the outstanding Slowheart, an album stuffed with perfectly produced hooks packaged in smoldering, synthy Risky Business guitars and a rugged vocal rasp that sheds most of the drawl from his delivery. Moore sounds determined to help redefine contemporary country music with hard nods toward both classic rock history and contemporary pop flavors. With its swirling guitar textures, meticulously catchy songcraft, and Moore's career-best performances (see the spare album-closing "Guitar Man"), Slowheart raises the bar for every would-be bro out there. -- Steve Leftridge



7. Chris Stapleton – From a Room: Volume 1 (Mercury Nashville)

If Chris Stapleton didn't really exist, we would have to invent him—a burly country singer with hair down to his nipples and a chainsaw of a soul-slinging voice who writes terrific throwback outlaw-indebted country songs and who wholesale rejects modern country trends. Stapleton's recent rise to festival headliner status is one of the biggest country music surprises in recent years, but his fans were relieved this year that his success didn't find him straying from his traditional wheelhouse. The first installment of From a Room once again finds Stapleton singing the hell out of his sturdy original songs. A Willie Nelson cover is not unwelcome either, as he unearths a semi-obscure one. The rest is made up of first-rate tales of commonality: Whether he's singing about hard-hurtin' breakups or resorting to smoking them stems, we've all been there. -- Steve Leftridge



6. Carly Pearce – Every Little Thing (Big Machine)

Many of the exciting young emerging artists in country music these days are women, yet the industry on the whole is still unwelcoming and unforgiving towards them. Look at who's getting the most radio play, for one. Carly Pearce had a radio hit with "Every Little Thing", a heartbreaking ballad about moments in time that in its pace itself tries to stop time. Every Little Thing the album is the sort of debut that deserves full attention. From start to finish it's a thoroughly riveting, rewarding work by a singer with presence and personality. There's a lot of humor, lust, blues, betrayal, beauty and sentimentality, in proper proportions. One of the best songs is a call for a lover to make her "feel something", even if it's anger or hatred. Indeed, the album doesn't shy away from a variety of emotions. Even when she treads into common tropes of mainstream country love songs, there's room for revelations and surprises. – Dave Heaton

From genre-busting electronic music to new highs in the ever-evolving R&B scene, from hip-hop and Americana to rock and pop, 2017's music scenes bestowed an embarrassment of riches upon us.


60. White Hills - Stop Mute Defeat (Thrill Jockey)

White Hills epic '80s callback Stop Mute Defeat is a determined march against encroaching imperial darkness; their eyes boring into the shadows for danger but they're aware that blinding lights can kill and distort truth. From "Overlord's" dark stomp casting nets for totalitarian warnings to "Attack Mode", which roars in with the tribal certainty that we can survive the madness if we keep our wits, the record is a true and timely win for Dave W. and Ego Sensation. Martin Bisi and the poster band's mysterious but relevant cool make a great team and deliver one of their least psych yet most mind destroying records to date. Much like the first time you heard Joy Division or early Pigface, for example, you'll experience being startled at first before becoming addicted to the band's unique microcosm of dystopia that is simultaneously corrupting and seducing your ears. - Morgan Y. Evans

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Scholar Judith May Fathallah's work blurs lines between author and ethnographer, fan experiences and genre TV storytelling.

In Fanfiction and the Author: How Fanfic Changes Popular Culture Texts, author Judith May Fathallah investigates the progressive intersections between popular culture and fan studies, expanding scholarly discourse concerning how contemporary blurred lines between texts and audiences result in evolving mediated practices.

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Which is the draw, the art or the artist? Critic Rachel Corbett examines the intertwined lives of two artists of two different generations and nationalities who worked in two starkly different media.

Artist biographies written for a popular audience necessarily involve compromise. On the one hand, we are only interested in the lives of artists because we are intrigued, engaged, and moved by their work. The confrontation with a work of art is an uncanny experience. We are drawn to, enraptured and entranced by, absorbed in the contemplation of an object. Even the performative arts (music, theater, dance) have an objective quality to them. In watching a play, we are not simply watching people do things; we are attending to the play as a thing that is more than the collection of actions performed. The play seems to have an existence beyond the human endeavor that instantiates it. It is simultaneously more and less than human: more because it's superordinate to human action and less because it's a mere object, lacking the evident subjectivity we prize in the human being.

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