Games

'Papo & Yo' Never Loses Sight of Its Central Metaphor

Papo & Yo's mixture of magical realism, poignant metaphors, and platforming challenges make it an outstanding achievement in video game storytelling.


Papo & Yo

Publisher: Sony Computer Entertainment
Rated: Everyone 10+
Players: 1
Price: $14.99
Platforms: Playstation 3
Developer: Minority
Release date: 2012-08-14
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My favorite description of the relationship between a video game's story and its rule systems comes from renowned game designer Warren Spector:

What story does in games is provide a context for player actions, player choices. In essence, when you're playing Deus Ex, or any other game, all you're really doing is you're moving a green pixel over a brown pixel, pressing a button at the right millisecond, that causes a red pixel to appear. That first pixel is a bullet, and that second pixel is a bad guy who's threatening your brother and that red pixel is "You've now saved your brother." All of a sudden, that's significant, and that's what stories can do.

It's an elegant explanation that recognizes the symbiotic relationship between a game's authorial intent and the emergent stories that arise from its mechanics. The best story-driven games recognize that traditional narrative elements (like visual aesthetics or a linear plot) can imbue meaning into seemingly neutral actions, thereby exposing the ways that interactive systems can shape our behavior and convey messages. Papo & Yo achieves this synthesis and, in doing so, masterfully conveys a deeply personal story.

Structurally, Papo & Yo is a third-person platformer/puzzle game. You control, Quico, a young boy who escapes a troubled home life by entering a fantasy world in which favela buildings sprout wings and magic chalk pictures come to life. This world is also inhabited by a hulking beast called "Monster." Monster can be docile and, at times, even helpful when you need to reach high ledges or trip specific switches. The game becomes an exercise in utilizing and placating Monster while piecing together the magical, physics-defying rules that govern the world. However, Monster loves poisonous frogs. Eating them sends him into a fiery rage and causes him to turn his anger towards Quico. Despite these violent attacks, Quico takes it on himself to lead Monster to a shaman in hopes of finding a way to exorcise his demons.

So often games either aim for verisimilitude (think Uncharted or Call of Duty) or fully embrace fantasy (like Mario or LittleBigPlanet). Papo & Yo displays a refreshing mixture of the supernatural and the realistic that resembles films like Pan's Labyrinth or books by Gabriel García Márquez. The favelas that make up most of the game's settings are decorated by magical chalk drawings. Touch the images and they reveal hidden switches, doors, and gears with the power to peel back entire sections of the landscape and expose mystical passageways. You navigate grimy sewers and dilapidated neighborhoods, but you also have a toy robot that comes to life when you need to rearrange buildings or hover in mid-air. And, of course, a huge monster accompanies you as you run through the city streets.

At times, Papo & Yo's magic-infused platforming is weak, but it is bolstered by the game's strong thematic elements. The slightly loose character control and occasional collision detection problem are easy to shrug off thanks to the game's gripping story. Vander Caballero, the game's creative director, sets the tone for all the subsequent action with a simple, yet startling, preface: "To my mother, brother and sisters with whom I survived the monster in my father." Such an explicit dedication, especially at the very beginning of a game, is nearly unheard of in the video game space. From the very beginning, it is clear that Quico's retreat into fantasy, his interactions with Monster, and his journey to save him are an exploration of the power dynamic between a child and an abusive parent.

Entering new areas is both exciting and nerve wracking. You don't know what obstacles you'll face, and you don't know if you'll have Monster's help, as even one frog triggers his anger. As Quico, you are simultaneously reliant on and responsible for Monster; you need his help to progress, but you must also take care of him when he loses control. The weight of this responsibility gets heavier as the game progresses as Monster's actions grow increasingly destructive. With every passing stage, you are asked to put more and more faith into the abstract idea that the shaman will somehow help Monster and put a stop to all of this pain.

Thanks to the medium's interactivity, Papo & Yo does more than simply describe the ambivalence and pain of a dysfunctional relationship -- it makes you feel it. In one of my favorite sequences, you guide Quico across a series of buildings, jumping from roof to roof while a calm Monster tags along below you. Later, you have to backtrack over this same terrain, except this time Monster is enraged and snarling at you from below. While your basic abilities are the same, the jumps somehow feel harder. Your one-time protector is now an enemy, waiting for you to make a mistake. There is a new sense of pressure not only to help him but to avoid putting yourself in harm's way. Doubt and fear creep into every jump and threaten to cripple you. Rightly or wrongly, you blame the frogs for transforming Monster. You blame Monster for not being able to control himself. You blame yourself for not being good enough or smart enough to get out of the situation. You come to know these things not because the game explicitly tells you "these are the consequences of addiction;" you know them because you experience them through the game's rules.

Papo & Yo is unflinching in its portrayal of nightmarish issues like alcoholism and child abuse. As you make your way towards the game's end (an ending that is both fittingly tragic and beautiful), it never loses sight of its central metaphor. It insists that you experience Quico and Monster's sad relationship through the game's mechanics. Just as Warren Spector describes, Papo & Yo's story provides the game's systems a meaningful context. In turn, we are able to understand how a platformer, one of the oldest and most basic video game genres, can represent something as complex as Caballero's relationship with his father. Blank pixels become symbols, abstract interactions become a story, and the resulting system lets us do more than receive a narrative; we participate it in it. This makes Papo & Yo an outstanding example of the best the medium has to offer.

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In Americana music the present is female. Two-thirds of our year-end list is comprised of albums by women. Here, then, are the women (and a few men) who represented the best in Americana in 2017.

If a single moment best illustrates the current divide between Americana music and mainstream country music, it was Sturgill Simpson busking in the street outside the CMA Awards in Nashville. While Simpson played his guitar and sang in a sort of renegade-outsider protest, Garth Brooks was onstage lip-syncindg his way to Entertainer of the Year. Americana music is, of course, a sprawling range of roots genres that incorporates traditional aspects of country, blues, soul, bluegrass, etc., but often represents an amalgamation or reconstitution of those styles. But one common aspect of the music that Simpson appeared to be championing during his bit of street theater is the independence, artistic purity, and authenticity at the heart of Americana music. Clearly, that spirit is alive and well in the hundreds of releases each year that could be filed under Americana's vast umbrella.

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Features

The Best Country Music of 2017

still from Midland "Drinkin' Problem" video

There are many fine country musicians making music that is relevant and affecting in these troubled times. Here are ten of our favorites.

Year to year, country music as a genre sometimes seems to roll on without paying that much attention to what's going on in the world (with the exception of bro-country singers trying to adopt the latest hip-hop slang). That can feel like a problem in a year when 58 people are killed and 546 are injured by gun violence at a country-music concert – a public-relations issue for a genre that sees many of its stars outright celebrating the NRA. Then again, these days mainstream country stars don't seem to do all that well when they try to pivot quickly to comment on current events – take Keith Urban's muddled-at-best 2017 single "Female", as but one easy example.

Nonetheless, there are many fine country musicians making music that is relevant and affecting in these troubled times. There are singers tackling deep, universal matters of the heart and mind. Artists continuing to mess around with a genre that can sometimes seem fixed, but never really is. Musicians and singers have been experimenting within the genre forever, and continue to. As Charlie Worsham sings, "let's try something new / for old time's sake." - Dave Heaton

10. Lillie Mae – Forever and Then Some (Third Man)

The first two songs on Lillie Mae's debut album are titled "Over the Hill and Through the Woods" and "Honky Tonks and Taverns". The music splits the difference between those settings, or rather bears the marks of both. Growing up in a musical family, playing fiddle in a sibling bluegrass act that once had a country radio hit, Lillie Mae roots her songs in musical traditions without relying on them as a gimmick or costume. The music feels both in touch with the past and very current. Her voice and perspective shine, carrying a singular sort of deep melancholy. This is sad, beautiful music that captures the points of view of people carrying weighty burdens and trying to find home. - Dave Heaton



9. Sunny Sweeney – Trophy (Aunt Daddy)

Sunny Sweeney is on her fourth album; each one has felt like it didn't get the attention it deserved. She's a careful singer and has a capacity for combining humor and likability with old-fashioned portrayal of deep sadness. Beginning in a bar and ending at a cemetery, Trophy projects deep sorrow more thoroughly than her past releases, as good as they were. In between, there are pills, bad ideas, heartbreak, and a clever, true-tearjerker ballad voicing a woman's longing to have children. -- Dave Heaton



8. Kip Moore – Slowheart (MCA Nashville)

The bro-country label never sat easy with Kip Moore. The man who gave us "Somethin' 'Bout a Truck" has spent the last few years trying to distance himself from the beer and tailgate crowd. Mission accomplished on the outstanding Slowheart, an album stuffed with perfectly produced hooks packaged in smoldering, synthy Risky Business guitars and a rugged vocal rasp that sheds most of the drawl from his delivery. Moore sounds determined to help redefine contemporary country music with hard nods toward both classic rock history and contemporary pop flavors. With its swirling guitar textures, meticulously catchy songcraft, and Moore's career-best performances (see the spare album-closing "Guitar Man"), Slowheart raises the bar for every would-be bro out there. -- Steve Leftridge



7. Chris Stapleton – From a Room: Volume 1 (Mercury Nashville)

If Chris Stapleton didn't really exist, we would have to invent him—a burly country singer with hair down to his nipples and a chainsaw of a soul-slinging voice who writes terrific throwback outlaw-indebted country songs and who wholesale rejects modern country trends. Stapleton's recent rise to festival headliner status is one of the biggest country music surprises in recent years, but his fans were relieved this year that his success didn't find him straying from his traditional wheelhouse. The first installment of From a Room once again finds Stapleton singing the hell out of his sturdy original songs. A Willie Nelson cover is not unwelcome either, as he unearths a semi-obscure one. The rest is made up of first-rate tales of commonality: Whether he's singing about hard-hurtin' breakups or resorting to smoking them stems, we've all been there. -- Steve Leftridge



6. Carly Pearce – Every Little Thing (Big Machine)

Many of the exciting young emerging artists in country music these days are women, yet the industry on the whole is still unwelcoming and unforgiving towards them. Look at who's getting the most radio play, for one. Carly Pearce had a radio hit with "Every Little Thing", a heartbreaking ballad about moments in time that in its pace itself tries to stop time. Every Little Thing the album is the sort of debut that deserves full attention. From start to finish it's a thoroughly riveting, rewarding work by a singer with presence and personality. There's a lot of humor, lust, blues, betrayal, beauty and sentimentality, in proper proportions. One of the best songs is a call for a lover to make her "feel something", even if it's anger or hatred. Indeed, the album doesn't shy away from a variety of emotions. Even when she treads into common tropes of mainstream country love songs, there's room for revelations and surprises. – Dave Heaton

From genre-busting electronic music to new highs in the ever-evolving R&B scene, from hip-hop and Americana to rock and pop, 2017's music scenes bestowed an embarrassment of riches upon us.


60. White Hills - Stop Mute Defeat (Thrill Jockey)

White Hills epic '80s callback Stop Mute Defeat is a determined march against encroaching imperial darkness; their eyes boring into the shadows for danger but they're aware that blinding lights can kill and distort truth. From "Overlord's" dark stomp casting nets for totalitarian warnings to "Attack Mode", which roars in with the tribal certainty that we can survive the madness if we keep our wits, the record is a true and timely win for Dave W. and Ego Sensation. Martin Bisi and the poster band's mysterious but relevant cool make a great team and deliver one of their least psych yet most mind destroying records to date. Much like the first time you heard Joy Division or early Pigface, for example, you'll experience being startled at first before becoming addicted to the band's unique microcosm of dystopia that is simultaneously corrupting and seducing your ears. - Morgan Y. Evans

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Scholar Judith May Fathallah's work blurs lines between author and ethnographer, fan experiences and genre TV storytelling.

In Fanfiction and the Author: How Fanfic Changes Popular Culture Texts, author Judith May Fathallah investigates the progressive intersections between popular culture and fan studies, expanding scholarly discourse concerning how contemporary blurred lines between texts and audiences result in evolving mediated practices.

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8

Which is the draw, the art or the artist? Critic Rachel Corbett examines the intertwined lives of two artists of two different generations and nationalities who worked in two starkly different media.

Artist biographies written for a popular audience necessarily involve compromise. On the one hand, we are only interested in the lives of artists because we are intrigued, engaged, and moved by their work. The confrontation with a work of art is an uncanny experience. We are drawn to, enraptured and entranced by, absorbed in the contemplation of an object. Even the performative arts (music, theater, dance) have an objective quality to them. In watching a play, we are not simply watching people do things; we are attending to the play as a thing that is more than the collection of actions performed. The play seems to have an existence beyond the human endeavor that instantiates it. It is simultaneously more and less than human: more because it's superordinate to human action and less because it's a mere object, lacking the evident subjectivity we prize in the human being.

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