The Modern Dance: Daft Punk Gives Music Back to Life

In the quietly experimental Random Access Memories, the androids have inverted postmodernism to make something not just pretty, but something pretty useful, too.

Daft Punk

Random Access Memories

Label: Columbia
US Release Date: 2013-05-21
UK Release Date: 2013-05-20
“It don’t mean a thing if it ain’t got that swing”

– Duke Ellington, quoted by Chic; “Everybody Dance”

From the very beginning of its existence -- which, of course, itself coincided with the birth of the teenager -- a crucial function of rock ‘n’ roll has always been to get its fans through their adolescence. In my own time, this was true for me not once but twice -- first via a two-year love affair with Metal, then through a profound and lengthy bromance with Frank Zappa.

Musically-speaking, Frank offered an alienated, self-regarding young man such as myself everything he could want. His stuff was oppositional, often impenetrable (at least by rock standards), and more to the point really weird. Better even than all that, though, was the intelligence sitting behind everything he did -- something probably most obvious in the complete thematic consistency that ran throughout his work. (Something known in Zappa-land as ‘conceptual continuity’.)

While Frank's intellectualism suited me at the time, there's something about the ways it often came out that, as a grown-up, I have a problem with, such as how aggressive -- didactic, even -- he invariably was in voicing his opinions. (Or to put it another way, echoing Naked Lunch, he seemingly had an answer for everything, from the correct underwear to how to wipe your ass.) Another, and probably more important factor, was how mealy-mouthed some of those opinions were, invariably about stuff that was in reality fairly innocuous.

One particular thing (alongside Grateful Dead Fans and the ‘60s) that had a special circle reserved for it in the Inferno was disco; his attitude toward which was best expressed in two songs dating from the mid-to-late ‘70s. The first, “Disco Boy”, is a Mogadonlike slow rock stomp in which a patron of la discotheque resolutely fails to get laid. “Dancin' Fool” tells the same story, but with the hero crashing and burning because of his two left feet.

To those that know a bit about Zappa’s worldview, his reasons for disliking disco will come as no surprise. First off, there was the environment itself, which he considered to be an exemplar of an increasingly decadent, standardised popular culture. As he said in an interview with Down Beat in 1978: "Disco entertainment centers [i.e., dance clubs] make it possible for mellow, laid-back, boring kinds of people to meet each other and reproduce. People who think of themselves as young moderns, upwardly mobile, go for fusion or disco."

Then there was the way disco's foolish young consumers had debased music itself by allowing it to be co-opted into a pre-packaged, hyper-marketed, ‘lifestyle’. This was apparently seen by Zappa as a betrayal of any number of things, from the correct, top-down listener/composer relationship, to rock’s eternal obligation to stick-it-to-The-Man. (It was also something that inadvertently aligned him with radio personality Steve Dahl's “Disco Sucks” yahoos, whose nadir came during Disco Demolition Night at Comiskey Park in 1979).

Lastly, however was the music itself, which for the most part Zappa simply thought was below him -- easy to make, but ultimately too constricting to be artistically worthwhile. As he suggested during another interview (this time on the Frank Zappa Interview Picture Disc), the last thing the ‘disco consumer’ wants is variation, not in the production, and certainly not rhythmically.

More than 30 years on from “Dancin' Fool”, the negative discourses fostered around disco persist. If original criticism centered around 'authenticity', however, the suggestion now is that disco is an anachronism -- something evidenced recently by reactions to Daft Punk's Random Access Memories.

Appearing earlier this year, Random Access Memories was met with massive public interest, generated in large part by the pre-album release of its first single, “Get Lucky”. Much of this fuss had to do with the fact that the song was -- not to put too fine a point on it -- an 80-proof, dyed-in-the-wool, 24 carat banger. Even more important, though, was the question it raised around its own production. Was the whole album really going to sound like some kind of evil cyborg Chic clone? Hang on a minute... isn’t that Nile Rodgers?

The tease continued right up to the album proper, with interviews revealing not only that the duo were recording with analogue equipment, but they’d come to regard computer music as ‘sterile’. Clearly, for a band that plays Black Sabbath to modern EDM's heavy metal, this seemed counter-intuitive, to say the least. More was to come, though -- yes, it was Nile Rodgers; and here's Giorgio Moroder, Paul Williams and a bunch of very expensive session musicians, as well.

When it finally was released, critical reaction to Random Access Memories was generally positive, and rightly so. There was a minority, however, that just hated it. Such feelings apparently stemmed from the way many felt that the androids had lost touch with the dance music zeitgeist. There was even a sense, of push-back by the EDM community following the duo's comments about electronic dance music’s current ‘identity crisis’.

Predictably, the majority of the criticism centered on how – perhaps ironically – “old-fashioned” the record sounded. This was a feeling best, and definitely most amusingly, summed up by Diplo, who initially compared the music to Pete Drake and his legendary “singing steel guitar”. Music journalist Alex Macpherson, quoted during a Twitter mini-shitstorm following a leak of the album said, “Listening to a certain new album; feel like I’m listening to classic rock for old men. Really bored. Dance music reaching its Mojo point."

Given disco's apparent “plasticity” (Zappa), one irony fluttering around Random Access Memories is the way that it taps into the old discourses of authenticity, but in a dance music context. For example, whatever the aesthetic purpose of the record's guest appearances, there's a definite sense that dues are being paid. The use of analogue equipment, meanwhile, as stated by the duo themselves, is an attempt to imbue the work with a ‘timeless’ quality.

Beyond questions of mere old skoolness however, there's also an even more profound examination of the authentic going on here -- something squarely located in the album’s ’s re-conceptualisation of good music as music with a 'purpose'.

Going back to Zappa, one thing he did not think was silly was 20th century avant garde composition; music which, unlike disco, was both challenging and clearly the product of driven, individual Genius. As any Frankophile will tell you, Zappa had immersed himself in this stuff from childhood, particularly following his early exposure to the work of Edgard Varese. He subsequently made it his life's true task, emulating his heroes by incorporating experimentation into everything he did.

Modern as Zappa considered himself to be, however, one thing he absolutely was not was 'utopian', a trope of Modernity requiring both a cynicism-check, and the making of art that was something other than just ‘pretty’. (Aesthetically-speaking, I would put Zappa in the proudly impenetrable tradition of high modernism, at least in terms of aspiration. Politically, however, his work reflected a rather acidic take on Swiss Dada, a movement that profoundly influenced both his live shows and cover art.)

With that in mind, it occurs that there may have been one last thing that Zappa had against disco -- that is, its idealistic, almost utopian sense of community. That the very existence of something as utilitarian as the dancefloor represented a capitulation, to both capitalism and to the stupidity engendered by it.

If disco does indeed possess a genuinely utopian impulse -- if it really does play the sexy Constructivist to Zappa's Dada -- this is something Random Access Memories exploits to the full. In fact, you could argue that given some of its themes, it’s as Modern as it is post-modern. And by extension, far from betraying the spirit of dance music, it actually embodies it.

The album begins with two tracks whose sentiment is so simplistic you might wonder why they bothered writing the lyrics at all. The first is “Give Life Back to Music”, another Nile Rodgers-co-penned thumper, which provides the first of the album's many exhortations to dance -- “Let the music in tonight/Just turn on the music/Let the music of your life/Give life back to music.” Next up is “The Game of Love”, a lament for an elusive lover which, like “Give Life Back to Music” repeats its lyrics like a mantra, this time over a plaintive, gorgeous, disco shuffle.

These songs provide the most elegant of introductions to the album, not just in terms of its themes, but also its purpose. The music here is to be listened to, of course -- why would they have spent all that money if not? More than that though, it's to be used -- to move to; as a soundtrack to a night out; to cry along with. These are the fundamentals of what rock ‘n’ roll is actually for. That’s why these songs take up so little space on the lyric sheet; this is the essence, boiled down.

Things get even more interesting with “Giorgio by Moroder”, a spoken-word piece in which the disco super producer tells his own story over a free-wheeling, protean backing track. Still striking in its audacity now, this homage to one of the 'teachers' is central to an album which, as discussed, hinges on notions of authenticity. More than that though, it also marks Random Access Memories’'s most obvious use of explicitly Modern tropes -- first in the track's focus on technology, and then in the way its form is dictated by its function.

“Georgio by Moroder” begins with Moroder describing his early career, particularly attempts to forge the "sound of the future" using synthesisers -- something which would reach full fruition in his epochal work with Donna Summer. Once his working method has been established, the subject moves onto his artistic philosophy; in particular his equation of music with freedom, and the role of machines in achieving that freedom. (Or to quote the man himself: “Once you free your mind about a concept of harmony and of music being correct, you can do whatever you want.”)

So far, you might say, so Mojo. But there's something fiendishly clever going on too, the music morphs to reflect Moroder's story as he tells it, from proto-disco to Omar Hakim-driven space rock. When I first heard “Georgio by Moroder” I thought of Oxen of the Sun, the episode in Ulysses in which style continually changes to mirror the historical gestation of the English language. For the purposes of this piece though, a more apt touchstone is probably the Bauhaus, with its faith in finding genuine common ground between art and functionality.

The move from the abstract to the ‘concrete’ -- from listening to living -- is finally codified on the album's aptly-named centrepiece: "Touch". The song begins with the record's most post-modern moment, via a spoken intro from Paul Williams, referencing his own work in Phantom of the Paradise. From there, like “Giorgio by Moroder”, it blossoms into an eight-minute uber-track. This time, however, the touchstone is not disco but brass and piano-driven easy listening.

Anyone familiar with De Palma’s movie will likely pick up on the subtext of the intro straight away. Like that film’s central character, the song’s android narrator is desperate to locate his own humanity behind the mask. Unlike the Phantom however, the humanity in question has not been lost (in a freak record-pressing accident), so much as it was never located to begin with.

As with the angels in Wim Wenders Wings of Desire, here we find the robots pleading to be able to connect with flesh and with feeling. To leave the realm of ideas and enter into a lived relation with the world -- with other beings, but also with the life music that they themselves have created. “Touch, sweet touch/You’ve given me too much to feel/Sweet touch/You’ve almost convinced me I’m real”

If “Touch” is the moment where the album shows its (human) hand, it’s also, ironically, where any analogy between disco and Modernism has to break down. After all, little in 20th century utopian art, from Le Corbusier to Speer, was concerned with actual, flesh-and-blood human beings. At the same time, conversely, disco is all too human -- overwhelmingly pleasure-seeking, and, as Uncle Frank would tell you, completely driven by the market. It sets out to ‘perfect’ nothing except the groove; which it does, brilliantly well.

While disco may not exactly mirror Modernism however, Random Access Memories is still a thoroughly Modern text, if only because it does so many new things. It shows us, for example, how retro influences can be spectacularly re-incorporated, unencumbered by either irony, or authenticity for its own sake. (Something articulated on the album via “Fragments of Time”’s series of endlessly ‘shining’ moments).

More than that though, it confronts traditional definitions of taste and Culture -- not by dissolving barriers, but by turning them inside out. It triumphantly elevates disco -- and easy, and fusion -- for the simple reason that, canon or not, people love this music. It kicks self-referential, purely ‘representative’ art temporarily into touch, paying homage instead to the simply useful. Best of all, it orders spurious, ill-defined discourses about "proper music” to sit quiet, letting the human beings alone to lose themselves to dance.

From genre-busting electronic music to new highs in the ever-evolving R&B scene, from hip-hop and Americana to rock and pop, 2017's music scenes bestowed an embarrassment of riches upon us.

60. White Hills - Stop Mute Defeat (Thrill Jockey)

White Hills epic '80s callback Stop Mute Defeat is a determined march against encroaching imperial darkness; their eyes boring into the shadows for danger but they're aware that blinding lights can kill and distort truth. From "Overlord's" dark stomp casting nets for totalitarian warnings to "Attack Mode", which roars in with the tribal certainty that we can survive the madness if we keep our wits, the record is a true and timely win for Dave W. and Ego Sensation. Martin Bisi and the poster band's mysterious but relevant cool make a great team and deliver one of their least psych yet most mind destroying records to date. Much like the first time you heard Joy Division or early Pigface, for example, you'll experience being startled at first before becoming addicted to the band's unique microcosm of dystopia that is simultaneously corrupting and seducing your ears. - Morgan Y. Evans

Keep reading... Show less

The Best Dance Tracks of 2017

Photo: Murielle Victorine Scherre (Courtesy of Big Beat Press)

From the "shamanic techno" of Parisian duo Pouvoir Magique to Stockholm Noir's brilliant string of darkly foreboding, electro-licked singles, here are ten selections that represent some of the more intriguing dance offerings of 2017.

In June of 2016, prolific producer Diplo lambasted the world of DJ's in an interview with Billboard, stating that EDM was dying. Coincidentally enough, the article's contents went viral and made their way into Vice Media's electronic music and culture channel Thump, which closed its doors after four years this summer amid company-wide layoffs. Months earlier, electronic music giant SFX Entertainment filed bankruptcy and reemerged as Lifestyle, Inc., shunning the term "EDM".

So here we are at the end of 2017, and the internet is still a flurry with articles declaring that Electronic Dance Music is rotting from the inside out and DJ culture is dying on the vine, devoured by corporate greed. That might all well be the case, but electronic music isn't disappearing into the night without a fight as witnessed by the endless parade of emerging artists on the scene, the rise of North America's first Electro Parade in Montréal, and the inaugural Electronic Music Awards in Los Angeles this past September.

For every insipid, automaton disc jockey-producer, there are innovative minds like Anna Lunoe, Four Tet, and the Black Madonna, whose eclectic, infectious sets display impeccable taste, a wealth of knowledge, and boundless creativity. Over the past few years, many underground artists have been thrust into the mainstream spotlight and lost the je ne sais quoi that made them unique. Regardless, there will always be new musicians, producers, singers, and visionaries to replace them, those who bring something novel to the table or tip a hat to their predecessors in a way that steps beyond homage and exhilarates as it did decades before.

As electronic music continues to evolve and its endless sub-genres continue to expand, so do fickle tastes, and preferences become more and more subjective with a seemingly endless list of artists to sift through. With so much music to digest, its no wonder that many artists remain under the radar. This list hopes to remedy that injustice and celebrate tracks both indie and mainstream. From the "shamanic techno" of Parisian duo Pouvoir Magique to Stockholm Noir's brilliant string of darkly foreboding, electro-licked singles, here are ten selections that represent some of the more intriguing dance offerings of 2017.

10. Moullinex - “Work It Out (feat. Fritz Helder)”

Taken from Portuguese producer, DJ, and multi-instrumentalist Luis Clara Gomes' third album Hypersex, "Work It Out" like all of its surrounding companions is a self-proclaimed, "collective love letter to club culture, and a celebration of love, inclusion and difference." Dance music has always seemingly been a safe haven for "misfits" standing on the edge of the mainstream, and while EDM manufactured sheen might have taken the piss out of the scene, Hypersex still revels in that defiant, yet warm and inviting attitude.

Like a cheeky homage to Rick James and the late, great High Priest of Pop, Prince, this delectably filthy, sexually charged track with its nasty, funk-drenched bass line, couldn't have found a more flawless messenger than former Azari & III member Fritz Helder. As the radiant, gender-fluid artist sings, "you better work your shit out", this album highlight becomes an anthem for all those who refuse to bow down to BS. Without any accompanying visuals, the track is electro-funk perfection, but the video, with its ruby-red, penile glitter canon, kicks the whole thing up a notch.

9. Touch Sensitive - “Veronica”

The neon-streaked days of roller rinks and turtlenecks, leg warmers and popped polo collars have come and gone, but you wouldn't think so listening to Michael "Touch Sensitive" Di Francesco's dazzling debut Visions. The Sydney-based DJ/producer's long-awaited LP and its lead single "Lay Down", which shot to the top of the Hype Machine charts, are as retro-gazing as they are distinctly modern, with nods to everything from nu disco to slo-mo house.

Featuring a sample lifted from 90s DJ and producer Paul Johnson's "So Much (So Much Mix)," the New Jack-kissed "Veronica" owns the dance floor. While the conversational interplay between the sexed-up couple is anything but profound, there is no denying its charms, however laughably awkward. While not everything on Visions is as instantly arresting, it is a testament to Di Francesco's talents that everything old sounds so damn fresh again.

8. Gourmet - “Delicious”

Neither Gourmet's defiantly eccentric, nine-track debut Cashmere, nor its subsequent singles, "There You Go" or "Yellow" gave any indication that the South African purveyor of "spaghetti pop" would drop one of the year's sassiest club tracks, but there you have it. The Cape Town-based artist, part of oil-slick, independent label 1991's diminutive roster, flagrantly disregards expectation on his latest outing, channeling the Scissor Sisters at their most gloriously bitchy best, Ratchet-era Shamir, and the shimmering dance-pop of UK singer-producer Joe Flory, aka Amateur Best.

With an amusingly detached delivery that rivals Ben Stein's droning roll call in Ferris Bueller's Day Off , he sings "I just want to dance, and fuck, and fly, and try, and fail, and try again…hold up," against a squelchy bass line and stabbing synths. When the percussive noise of what sounds like a triangle dinner bell appears within the mix, one can't help but think that Gourmet is simply winking at his audience, as if to say, "dinner is served."

7. Pouvoir Magique - “Chalawan”

Like a psychoactive ayahuasca brew, the intoxicating "shamanic techno" of Parisian duo Pouvoir Magique's LP Disparition, is an exhilarating trip into unfamiliar territory. Formed in November of 2011, "Magic Power" is the musical project of Clément Vincent and Bertrand Cerruti, who over the years, have cleverly merged several millennia of songs from around the world with 21st-century beats and widescreen electro textures. Lest ye be worried, this is anything but Deep Forest.

In the spring of 2013, Pouvoir Magique co-founded the "Mawimbi" collective, a project designed to unite African musical heritage with contemporary soundscapes, and released two EPs. Within days of launching their label Musiques de Sphères, the duo's studio was burglarized and a hard drive with six years of painstakingly curated material had vanished. After tracking down demos they shared with friends before their final stages of completion, Clément and Bertrand reconstructed an album of 12 tracks.

Unfinished though they might be, each song is a marvelous thing to behold. Their stunning 2016 single "Eclipse," with its cinematic video, might have been one of the most immediate songs on the record, but it's the pulsing "Chalawan," with its guttural howls, fluttering flute-like passages, and driving, hypnotic beats that truly mesmerizes.

6. Purple Disco Machine - “Body Funk” & “Devil In Me” (TIE)

Whenever a bevy of guest artists appears on a debut record, it's often best to approach the project with caution. 85% of the time, the collaborative partners either overshadow the proceedings or detract from the vision of the musician whose name is emblazoned across the top of the LP. There are, however, pleasant exceptions to the rule and Tino Piontek's Soulmatic is one of the year's most delightfully cohesive offerings. The Dresden-born Deep Funk innovator, aka Purple Disco Machine, has risen to international status since 2009, releasing one spectacular track and remix after another. It should go without saying that this long-awaited collection, featuring everyone from Kool Keith to Faithless and Boris D'lugosch, is ripe with memorable highlights.

The saucy, soaring "Mistress" shines a spotlight on the stellar pipes of "UK soul hurricane" Hannah Williams. While it might be a crowning moment within the set, its the strutting discofied "Body Funk", and the album's first single, "Devil In Me", that linger long after the record has stopped spinning. The former track with its camptastic fusion of '80s Sylvester gone 1940s military march, and the latter anthem, a soulful stunner that samples the 1968 Stax hit "Private Number", and features the vocal talents of Duane Harden and Joe Killington, feels like an unearthed classic. Without a doubt, the German DJ's debut is one of the best dance records of the year.

Next Page
Related Articles Around the Web

Subverting the Romcom: Mercedes Grower on Creating 'Brakes'

Noel Fielding (Daniel) and Mercedes Grower (Layla) (courtesy Bulldog Film Distribution)

Brakes plunges straight into the brutal and absurd endings of the relationships of nine couples before travelling back in time to discover the moments of those first sparks of love.

The improvised dark comedy Brakes (2017), a self-described "anti-romcom", is the debut feature of comedienne and writer, director and actress Mercedes Grower. Awarded production completion funding from the BFI Film Fund, Grower now finds herself looking to the future as she develops her second feature film, alongside working with Laura Michalchyshyn from Sundance TV and Wren Arthur from Olive productions on her sitcom, Sailor.

Keep reading... Show less

People aren't cheering Supergirl on here. They're not thanking her for her heroism, or even stopping to take a selfie.

It's rare for any hero who isn't Superman to gain the kind of credibility that grants them the implicitly, unflinching trust of the public. In fact, even Superman struggles to maintain that credibility and he's Superman. If the ultimate paragon of heroes struggles with maintaining the trust of the public, then what hope does any hero have?

Keep reading... Show less

The Paraguay-born, Brooklyn-based indie pop artist MAJO wraps brand new holiday music for us to enjoy in a bow.

It's that time of year yet again, and with Christmastime comes Christmas tunes. Amongst the countless new covers of holiday classics that will be flooding streaming apps throughout the season from some of our favorite artists, it's always especially heartening to see some original writing flowing in. Such is the gift that Paraguay-born, Brooklyn-based indie pop songwriter MAJO is bringing us this year.

Keep reading... Show less
Pop Ten
Mixed Media
PM Picks

© 1999-2017 All rights reserved.
Popmatters is wholly independently owned and operated.