Film

The Gritty and the Real: Unpacking the Realism Trope in Superhero Films

The only thing that can be done with film better than comics is spectacle. Thinking otherwise betrays a lack of respect for comics, and a pretentiousness about film.


Man of Steel

Director: Zack Snyder
Cast: Henry Cavill, Amy Adams, Michael Shannon, Diane Lane, Kevin Costner
MPAA Rating: PG-13
Studio: Warner Brothers
Year: 2013
UK Release Date: 2013-06-12
US Release Date: 2013-06-14.
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Fantastic Four

Director: Josh Trank
Cast: Kate Mara, Miles Teller, Jamie Bell, Michael B. Jordan, Toby Kebbell
Studio: Twentieth Century Fox
Year: 2015
UK Release date: 2015-06-18
US Release date: 2015-06-19

The only thing that can be done with film better than comics is spectacle. Thinking otherwise betrays a lack of respect for comics, and a pretentiousness about film.

Within a few days of each other last month, director Zack Snyder and producer Simon Kinberg employed virtually the same language to describe and defend two of their respective and recent superhero projects. Here is Snyder in Forbes on Man of Steel (2013):

…I think with Superman we have this opportunity to place this icon within the sort of real world we live in. And I think that, honestly, the thing I was surprised about in response to Superman was how everyone clings to the Christopher Reeve version of Superman, you know? How tightly they cling to those ideas, not really the comic book version but more the movie version… If you really analyze the comic book version of Superman, he’s killed, he’s done all the things– I guess the rules that people associate with Superman in the movie world are not the rules that really apply to him in the comic book world, because those rules are different. He’s done all the things and more that we’ve shown him doing, right? It’s just funny to see people really taking it personally… because I made him real, you know, I made him feel, or made consequences [in] the world. I felt like, it was the same thing in Watchmen. We really wanted to show it wasn’t just like they thought, like the PG-13 version where everyone just gets up and they’re fine. I really wanted to show the violence is real, people get killed or get hurt, and it’s not fun or funny. And I guess for me, it was like I wanted a hero in Superman that was a real hero and sort of reflected the world we live in now… (see, Mark Hughes, "Exclusive Interview With Zack Snyder, Director Of 'Batman Vs. Superman'," Forbes, 17 April 2014).

And here's Kinberg at Hitfix on the Fantastic Four reboot:

"As Singer created with the original 'X-Men' movies, Christopher Nolan created with the 'Dark Knight' movies, Jon Favreau and Marvel created with the 'Iron Man' movies, all the best superhero franchises - Sam Raimi did it with with 'Spider-Man' - they create a tone and that is the thing that defines them," Kinberg insists.  "It's not the stories that differentiate them from each other.  Sometimes the characterizations aren't that distinct. It's that the tone is different and in some ways [that's because of the] lessons learned from the original 'Fantastic Four' movies, but also because of Josh Trank's natural instinct for more realism, for more of a dramatic approach to things. This will definitely be a more realistic, a more gritty, grounded telling of the 'Fantastic Four' and no matter what people think about the cast" (see, Gregory Ellwood, "New 'Fantastic Four' will be a more 'gritty' and 'realistic' movie than the original," Hitfix, 20 April 2014)

The keywords here are all variations on "real": "real world", "realism", "realistic", "really". These terms have a particular currency for critical discussions and creative engagements with films made from comics, particularly superhero comics.

In an immediate sense, the invocation of "the real", and elaborations like "gritty" and "grounded", or claims regarding the "reality" of the violence in a film, are meant to connote something about the "adult" or "mature" possibilities of superhero adaptations. Snyder makes this explicit when referencing his approach to Watchmen (2009), but also in his comparison of Man of Steel to the Christopher Reeve version of Superman, which he implies is far more adolescent or childish than his (and writer David Goyer's and actor Harry Cavill's) for its lack of "real" violence or consequences.

A quick, and logical, response to assertions of realism in a superhero movie is to point out that such characters not only don't exist, but only exist as stories. So, basically, "Get over yourselves Messrs. Snyder and Kinberg." While such a retort can be satisfying, as well as being literally true, I also think that this response misses an important point about Hollywood film, and, particularly, the kinds of spectacles under discussion here.

When viewers go to a movie like Man of Steel, or the latest installment in The Hobbit / The Lord of the Rings or Star Trek franchises, most know that Superman, or hobbits, wizards, and warp drive, don't exist. Nonetheless, most also want to feel as if what they are seeing on screen could be real. There is little that dooms a Hollywood fantasy more assuredly than a perception that its depiction of the fantastic appears "fake".

This aspect of film realism is primarily visual. Simply, do I believe what I see? However, both Snyder and Kinberg clearly mean for their heroes to be "real" on levels other than the visual. It is not enough that I believe my eyes when I see Superman fly or Reed Richards stretch his arms across a room. Snyder and Kinberg also want me to believe that these are "real" men, making "real" choices, with "real" consequences in the "real" world.

Those aspirations are fair enough, and as Snyder suggests, are often shared by the people who make the comics on which these films are based. However, I still think that the particular vision of what it means to be "real" at work in the Kinberg and Snyder interviews is problematic and requires unpacking to be fully understood and critiqued.

From Snyder's interview, in particular, being "real" transparently means being violent, and implies people getting hurt, even getting killed. It's important to note that the background to his remarks in Forbes is the ending of Man of Steel which not only has Superman killing the villain, but doing so with little regard for civilians caught in the middle of the fight. In other words, in Snyder's version of "the world we live in now", were Superman to exist, he would prioritize killing his protagonist over keeping people safe.

In Kinberg's case, the movie is still in production, and one can only speculate as to what a 'gritty, grounded and more real' Fantastic Four will look like. However, Kinberg, particularly in beginning his list of referents with Christopher Nolan's Batman, clearly understands that there is a context in which his film will be received, and in that context, it is important to have your work be seen as "serious" somehow, an attribute that few would attach to the prior Fantastic Four (2005) and Fantastic 4: Rise of the Silver Surfer (2007).

Those prior films were only marginally successful in bringing The Fantastic Four to the big screen in franchise form. That being said, whatever their flaws, director Tim Story, and the stable of writers who made these movies, did get at least a couple of essential things right about the cast of characters, namely the importance of family and that the members of the quartet are all, essentially, ordinary people with established lives who have their powers foisted on them by accident and without consent. Based on their comics histories, Sue, Reed, Ben, and Johnny are, if anything, less likely than Clark Kent/Superman to be credibly made into cold killers.

In the comics, The Fantastic Four and the entire Marvel Universe were given a harsher alternate imagining with the launch of the Ultimate line of titles in 2000, which demonstrates that there is material enough to fashion or re-fashion these characters in different ways and still remain within the Marvel canon. But fidelity to source material is a different question from the "realism" of an adaptation, at least in the sense that the quoted filmmakers are using those kinds of words.

Snyder certainly, and Kinberg likely, are expressing, or maybe rehearsing, a common critical stance that sees negative, bleak, or cynical outcomes as making for more authentic fiction than positive, hopeful, or idealistic results. Sad is more real than happy. Violence is more real than mercy. Revenge is more real than justice. Everyone has their tastes, but a taste is a preference. For some, those preferences might be grounded in a particular worldview, but just as tastes are markers of subjectivity and not external reality, views are not reflections. And, at some point, you may need to account for what you're unable or unwilling to see from your particular vantage point.

Snyder is still answering questions about Man of Steel because asserting the reality of what Superman would do as a defense of one's film begs the underlying questions of what, and whose, reality is being enacted. The matter of what Superman, or the members of The Fantastic Four, would really do, in any situation, is unanswerable. The closest you can get with characters like these is to look at the comics and related media, such as video games and animated TV shows and movies.

Following Man of Steel, Some critics and reporters did search for other cases where Superman has been shown to have killed (see, for example, Leslie Gornstein, "'Man of Steel' Controversy: Does Superman Go Too Far? (Spoiler Alert)", Yahoo! Movies, 17 June 2013), and the conclusion to be drawn from these efforts is that yes, as Snyder asserts, you can find instances where Superman at least arguably chooses to kill, but this is a clear exception in how the character is depicted.

There's no simple choice to be made between a real (adult) Superman and an un-real (adolescent) Superman. The only sense in which Snyder's Superman is anymore "real" than anyone else's is in relation to his own, authorial, sense of the world he imagines the character inhabiting. If that is a hard and violent world, fine, but accept ownership of that view, don't act as if your choices are beyond you.

One way in which Marvel's characters have been used to 'reflect the world we live now' in both the comics and on film is by locating them in real world locations, notably New York, but also other cities like Los Angeles and San Francisco. Marvel characters are accessible figures in their storyworld via media, as celebrities, and as icons of pop culture. In some cases, they are even people's neighbors. This conceit allows for humor and satire about heroes, heroism, and hero-worship that shows or comments on aspects of the media saturated lives lived by many readers and viewers of Marvel books and films. Notably, here, it is an approach to realism that is not, inherently, gritty or violent, but can be light and humorous, as when Tony Stark has to deal with overly solicitous fanboys or crowds of people are shown taking part in a pro-mutant rally when the X-Men show up.

Reality isn't a stable referent, and what feels real in a film will largely be a matter of context and of the particular reality being shown on screen. In the case of superheroes, the aforementioned visual level of reality is likely what brings audiences to the theater. Millions more see the films based on the comics than read the books. Most of those moviegoers likely could care less how the Superman in Man of Steel conforms to canon, however that is defined, but what they likely want is an opportunity to imagine what seeing Superman in the "real world" might be like.

For readers of the comics, a live action film is also an opportunity to see the characters from a different perspective, embodied by an actor and projected 30 feet high. In both cases, there's a desire for wonder, to see and imagine something "impossible", not the superhero as metaphor.

The superhero film that incorporates a notion of wonder best isn't a live action film or one based on a comic; it's Brad Bird's The Incredibles (2004). This theme is directly addressed in a scene between Mr. Incredible (Craig T. Nelson) and the neighbor kid, who is always hanging around the driveway on his tricycle.

"What are you waiting for?", asks Mr. Incredible.

"I don't know. Something amazing, I guess," says the kid.

Mr. Incredible sighs and responds, "Me, too, kid."

If you can get that right, that something 'amazing', you can still grit up your film or have your hero kill the villain, but I wouldn't start there. There's no shortage of comics one could read for dirty, ugly or morally ambiguous superheroes. The only thing that can be done with film better than comics is spectacle. Thinking otherwise betrays a lack of respect for comics, and a pretentiousness about film.

While superheroes, in both comics and film have, for lack of a better word, "matured" beyond the simplistic themes and fantasies of the earliest comics, these characters are still rooted in some concept of fun or "wouldn't it be cool if ..." Modern filmmaking technology makes taking that speculation from page to screen far easier and more real, in a visual sense, than has been previously possible, but that also means that it can be taken for granted. The best superhero films never sacrifice the wondrous to 'the real'.

In Americana music the present is female. Two-thirds of our year-end list is comprised of albums by women. Here, then, are the women (and a few men) who represented the best in Americana in 2017.

If a single moment best illustrates the current divide between Americana music and mainstream country music, it was Sturgill Simpson busking in the street outside the CMA Awards in Nashville. While Simpson played his guitar and sang in a sort of renegade-outsider protest, Garth Brooks was onstage lip-syncindg his way to Entertainer of the Year. Americana music is, of course, a sprawling range of roots genres that incorporates traditional aspects of country, blues, soul, bluegrass, etc., but often represents an amalgamation or reconstitution of those styles. But one common aspect of the music that Simpson appeared to be championing during his bit of street theater is the independence, artistic purity, and authenticity at the heart of Americana music. Clearly, that spirit is alive and well in the hundreds of releases each year that could be filed under Americana's vast umbrella.

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Features

The Best Country Music of 2017

still from Midland "Drinkin' Problem" video

There are many fine country musicians making music that is relevant and affecting in these troubled times. Here are ten of our favorites.

Year to year, country music as a genre sometimes seems to roll on without paying that much attention to what's going on in the world (with the exception of bro-country singers trying to adopt the latest hip-hop slang). That can feel like a problem in a year when 58 people are killed and 546 are injured by gun violence at a country-music concert – a public-relations issue for a genre that sees many of its stars outright celebrating the NRA. Then again, these days mainstream country stars don't seem to do all that well when they try to pivot quickly to comment on current events – take Keith Urban's muddled-at-best 2017 single "Female", as but one easy example.

Nonetheless, there are many fine country musicians making music that is relevant and affecting in these troubled times. There are singers tackling deep, universal matters of the heart and mind. Artists continuing to mess around with a genre that can sometimes seem fixed, but never really is. Musicians and singers have been experimenting within the genre forever, and continue to. As Charlie Worsham sings, "let's try something new / for old time's sake." - Dave Heaton

10. Lillie Mae – Forever and Then Some (Third Man)

The first two songs on Lillie Mae's debut album are titled "Over the Hill and Through the Woods" and "Honky Tonks and Taverns". The music splits the difference between those settings, or rather bears the marks of both. Growing up in a musical family, playing fiddle in a sibling bluegrass act that once had a country radio hit, Lillie Mae roots her songs in musical traditions without relying on them as a gimmick or costume. The music feels both in touch with the past and very current. Her voice and perspective shine, carrying a singular sort of deep melancholy. This is sad, beautiful music that captures the points of view of people carrying weighty burdens and trying to find home. - Dave Heaton



9. Sunny Sweeney – Trophy (Aunt Daddy)

Sunny Sweeney is on her fourth album; each one has felt like it didn't get the attention it deserved. She's a careful singer and has a capacity for combining humor and likability with old-fashioned portrayal of deep sadness. Beginning in a bar and ending at a cemetery, Trophy projects deep sorrow more thoroughly than her past releases, as good as they were. In between, there are pills, bad ideas, heartbreak, and a clever, true-tearjerker ballad voicing a woman's longing to have children. -- Dave Heaton



8. Kip Moore – Slowheart (MCA Nashville)

The bro-country label never sat easy with Kip Moore. The man who gave us "Somethin' 'Bout a Truck" has spent the last few years trying to distance himself from the beer and tailgate crowd. Mission accomplished on the outstanding Slowheart, an album stuffed with perfectly produced hooks packaged in smoldering, synthy Risky Business guitars and a rugged vocal rasp that sheds most of the drawl from his delivery. Moore sounds determined to help redefine contemporary country music with hard nods toward both classic rock history and contemporary pop flavors. With its swirling guitar textures, meticulously catchy songcraft, and Moore's career-best performances (see the spare album-closing "Guitar Man"), Slowheart raises the bar for every would-be bro out there. -- Steve Leftridge



7. Chris Stapleton – From a Room: Volume 1 (Mercury Nashville)

If Chris Stapleton didn't really exist, we would have to invent him—a burly country singer with hair down to his nipples and a chainsaw of a soul-slinging voice who writes terrific throwback outlaw-indebted country songs and who wholesale rejects modern country trends. Stapleton's recent rise to festival headliner status is one of the biggest country music surprises in recent years, but his fans were relieved this year that his success didn't find him straying from his traditional wheelhouse. The first installment of From a Room once again finds Stapleton singing the hell out of his sturdy original songs. A Willie Nelson cover is not unwelcome either, as he unearths a semi-obscure one. The rest is made up of first-rate tales of commonality: Whether he's singing about hard-hurtin' breakups or resorting to smoking them stems, we've all been there. -- Steve Leftridge



6. Carly Pearce – Every Little Thing (Big Machine)

Many of the exciting young emerging artists in country music these days are women, yet the industry on the whole is still unwelcoming and unforgiving towards them. Look at who's getting the most radio play, for one. Carly Pearce had a radio hit with "Every Little Thing", a heartbreaking ballad about moments in time that in its pace itself tries to stop time. Every Little Thing the album is the sort of debut that deserves full attention. From start to finish it's a thoroughly riveting, rewarding work by a singer with presence and personality. There's a lot of humor, lust, blues, betrayal, beauty and sentimentality, in proper proportions. One of the best songs is a call for a lover to make her "feel something", even if it's anger or hatred. Indeed, the album doesn't shy away from a variety of emotions. Even when she treads into common tropes of mainstream country love songs, there's room for revelations and surprises. – Dave Heaton

From genre-busting electronic music to new highs in the ever-evolving R&B scene, from hip-hop and Americana to rock and pop, 2017's music scenes bestowed an embarrassment of riches upon us.


60. White Hills - Stop Mute Defeat (Thrill Jockey)

White Hills epic '80s callback Stop Mute Defeat is a determined march against encroaching imperial darkness; their eyes boring into the shadows for danger but they're aware that blinding lights can kill and distort truth. From "Overlord's" dark stomp casting nets for totalitarian warnings to "Attack Mode", which roars in with the tribal certainty that we can survive the madness if we keep our wits, the record is a true and timely win for Dave W. and Ego Sensation. Martin Bisi and the poster band's mysterious but relevant cool make a great team and deliver one of their least psych yet most mind destroying records to date. Much like the first time you heard Joy Division or early Pigface, for example, you'll experience being startled at first before becoming addicted to the band's unique microcosm of dystopia that is simultaneously corrupting and seducing your ears. - Morgan Y. Evans

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Which is the draw, the art or the artist? Critic Rachel Corbett examines the intertwined lives of two artists of two different generations and nationalities who worked in two starkly different media.

Artist biographies written for a popular audience necessarily involve compromise. On the one hand, we are only interested in the lives of artists because we are intrigued, engaged, and moved by their work. The confrontation with a work of art is an uncanny experience. We are drawn to, enraptured and entranced by, absorbed in the contemplation of an object. Even the performative arts (music, theater, dance) have an objective quality to them. In watching a play, we are not simply watching people do things; we are attending to the play as a thing that is more than the collection of actions performed. The play seems to have an existence beyond the human endeavor that instantiates it. It is simultaneously more and less than human: more because it's superordinate to human action and less because it's a mere object, lacking the evident subjectivity we prize in the human being.

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