'Ex Machina' and the Moral and Intellectual Facets of AI Development

Ex Machina treats its audience with reverence and care, and as a result, it's a film that can be dissected and appreciated by both humans and sentient robots alike.

Ex Machina

Director: Alex Garland
Cast: Oscar Isaac, Domhnail Gleeson, Alicia Vikander
Distributor: Lionsgate
Studio: Lionsgate
Release date: 2015-07-14

Ex Machina has absolutely zero new ideas in its storyline. Movies dealing with the inevitable rise of artificial intelligence and what that would mean for humans have been churned out for decades, from the hopeful (Steven Speilberg's A.I.: Artificial Intelligence) to the schlocky (Eagle Eye, the Terminator franchise), with the results ranging from genius to misunderstood to Arnold Schwarzenegger. As of now, it's a concept that exists primarily in the realm of science fiction, and yes, Ex Machina is the only the latest in a never-ending series of entries about the dangers of humans playing god.

So why is Ex Machina so damn good?

Ex Machina is an exemplary piece of science fiction filmmaking because at its core, it's a simple story told by three primary characters. It's simple enough that it could be adapted as a stage play with minimal effort, yet it's layered and nuanced enough to justify why it works best in the medium of film. Its production design but most especially its special effects serve as a stunning entry-point into writer-director Alex Garland's dynamic vision.

Yet the numerous moral and philosophical quandries Ex Machina presents wouldn't land were it not for the unique binaries each central character inhabits. On one end of the spectrum, there is Nathan (Oscar Isaac), a brilliant multi-billionarie who truly embraces what it means to be a human: he works out, he drinks heavily, he spends a majority of the film roaming his intensely-isolated mega-property barefoot, and sports a frayed-but-deliberate beard. Each one of these elements highlight his fundamental human-ness, which, when coupled with his brash, arrogant, whim-driven personality, makes for a character that you fully believe as someone who would cut themselves off from the world in order to work on (and perfect) the world's first proper artificial intelligence.

On the other end, of course, is his creation, Ava (newcomer Alicia Vikander in a breakout role). She is a fully-functional robot in need of a charging station. Her midsection, arms, and legs are translucent, so you can actually see her moving parts. When we first meet her, she has realistic-looking hands, feet, and a face, while everything else is robotic.

She asks numerous questions, seems very soft-spoken, and has a genuine curiosity for the world that exists beyond the small living space that Nathan has provided for her. As the story progresses, she adds clothes and even artificial skin grafts to her frame, slowly and carefully blurring that line between human and robot.

Caught in the middle, however, is young programmer Caleb (Domhnail Gleeson), who works for the gigantic company that Nathan created and happens to win a contest wherein he gets to spend a week with the founder himself. Young, precocious, although still very much naïve, Caleb proves to be a personality pitched almost perfectly between Nathan's human essence and the mechanics that (literally) operate Ava's heart. He is a human, but a follower. He's a young buck who (mild spoiler) learns that he wasn't chosen as the winner of this contest because of his deft programming abilities, but because of his pornographic interests and his "everyboy normality".

Caleb is just a cog in a machine. His purpose is to determine if Ava will pass a Turing test. If passed, that means that someone interacting with Ava would not be able to tell if she's a human or a machine. Caleb argues that Nathan is cheating, showing him firsthand that she's a machine right from the get-go. Nathan says that was a deliberate move, because the real test is whether or not Caleb will still maintain his opinion after spending a full week with her.

In one rather notable exchange, Caleb grills Nathan on the fact that Ava has gender -- and a gender imbued with sexuality, at that. Nathan pushes back and asks, why wouldn't an AI have a gender? If its role is to imitate that of a human, why wouldn't it have such fundamentally human characteristics? Caleb ponders this during his multiple sessions with Ava.

The "interview room" is small glass box inside a much larger contained room. Caleb is isolated while Ava gets to walk around Caleb's interview box on three sides, roaming and in her own way prowling around her young prey.

Ex Machina isn't a thriller per say, but it does build tension in a constant, gradual fashion; an ominous crack in Ava's plexiglass cage upon Caleb's arrival hints at something much sinister. Questions arise, such as the responsibility one has upon creating something as unique and rich as consciousness. Even with its potent ending, Ex Machina leaves a viewer filled with more questions than answers, but only in the most philosophical of senses. If that isn't enticing enough, then just wait 'til you see the dance sequence.

The special features are merely featurettes and an hour-long documentary, the former are all available online and the latter is unique to this release. The interviews with the cast prove to be very earnest (and boy, is Isaac a lively one). The interviews with the visual effects artists and production designers best highlight unique characteristics in the film that one may miss upon first viewing. It's insightful but never too self-congratulatory, making for a plainspoken but compelling look as to what went into the making of this minor-key miracle.

Although Ex Machina doesn't bring any new big ideas to the table, it expands and probes moral and intellectual facets of AI development. Ex Machina treats its audience with reverence and care, and as a result, it's a film that can be dissected and appreciated by both humans and sentient robots alike.


In Americana music the present is female. Two-thirds of our year-end list is comprised of albums by women. Here, then, are the women (and a few men) who represented the best in Americana in 2017.

If a single moment best illustrates the current divide between Americana music and mainstream country music, it was Sturgill Simpson busking in the street outside the CMA Awards in Nashville. While Simpson played his guitar and sang in a sort of renegade-outsider protest, Garth Brooks was onstage lip-syncindg his way to Entertainer of the Year. Americana music is, of course, a sprawling range of roots genres that incorporates traditional aspects of country, blues, soul, bluegrass, etc., but often represents an amalgamation or reconstitution of those styles. But one common aspect of the music that Simpson appeared to be championing during his bit of street theater is the independence, artistic purity, and authenticity at the heart of Americana music. Clearly, that spirit is alive and well in the hundreds of releases each year that could be filed under Americana's vast umbrella.

Keep reading... Show less

From genre-busting electronic music to new highs in the ever-evolving R&B scene, from hip-hop and Americana to rock and pop, 2017's music scenes bestowed an embarrassment of riches upon us.

60. White Hills - Stop Mute Defeat (Thrill Jockey)

White Hills epic '80s callback Stop Mute Defeat is a determined march against encroaching imperial darkness; their eyes boring into the shadows for danger but they're aware that blinding lights can kill and distort truth. From "Overlord's" dark stomp casting nets for totalitarian warnings to "Attack Mode", which roars in with the tribal certainty that we can survive the madness if we keep our wits, the record is a true and timely win for Dave W. and Ego Sensation. Martin Bisi and the poster band's mysterious but relevant cool make a great team and deliver one of their least psych yet most mind destroying records to date. Much like the first time you heard Joy Division or early Pigface, for example, you'll experience being startled at first before becoming addicted to the band's unique microcosm of dystopia that is simultaneously corrupting and seducing your ears. - Morgan Y. Evans

Keep reading... Show less

This week on our games podcast, Nick and Eric talk about the joy and frustration of killing Nazis in Wolfenstein: The New Order.

This week, Nick and Eric talk about the joy and frustration of killing Nazis in Wolfenstein: The New Order.

Keep reading... Show less

Gabin's Maigret lets everyone else emote, sometimes hysterically, until he vents his own anger in the final revelations.

France's most celebrated home-grown detective character is Georges Simenon's Inspector Jules Maigret, an aging Paris homicide detective who, phlegmatically and unflappably, tracks down murderers to their lairs at the center of the human heart. He's invariably icon-ified as a shadowy figure smoking an eternal pipe, less fancy than Sherlock Holmes' curvy calabash but getting the job done in its laconic, unpretentious, middle-class manner.

Keep reading... Show less

Multi-tasking on your smart phone consumes too many resources, including memory, and can cause the system to "choke". Imagine what it does to your brain.

In the simplest of terms, Adam Gazzaley and Larry D. Rosen's The Distracted Mind: Ancient Brains in a High-Tech World is a book about technology and the distractions that often accompany it. This may not sound like anything earth shattering. A lot of people have written about this subject. Still, this book feels a little different. It's a unique combination of research, data, and observation. Equally important, it doesn't just talk about the problem—it suggests solutions.

Keep reading... Show less
Pop Ten
Mixed Media
PM Picks

© 1999-2017 All rights reserved.
Popmatters is wholly independently owned and operated.