Liv Ullmann is one of the most talented, visionary, and literate performers in modern acting's history. She also happens to be a hopelessly addicted to Henrik Ibsen's simple and eloquent play, A Doll's House. Throughout her long, illustrious career, the plum role of Nora has lingered in her work, making her (in this writer's opinion) one of the actresses to best equipped to navigate the tricky depths and glossed over surfaces of this complex character.
Ullmann, who like Ibsen is Norwegian, has said she has a strong connection to Nora. There are many similarities between the actress's real life and that of the character: she had a long, ongoing relationship with a much older, semi-controlling man (Swedish director Ingmar Bergman), her fame and personality were largely related to her relationship with Bergman, and as a performer, Ullmann is always putting on appearances like Nora; she has many great, fascinating layers. As Ullman puts it:
"This woman, who uses and manipulates those around her while at the same time wanting to help and love them, refuses to do something she feels is morally repugnant to her when the decisive moment comes. It is beyond her imagination to conceive of exploiting the situation when Dr. Rank declares his love and begs to give her the money she so badly needs… When she finally sees, she also understands the anger she feels over everything that is false between them is directed just as much against herself as against him. Her responsibility was as great as his. She hopes that the change will also take place in him -- not for her sake, but for his own… In the first acts Nora is not just the songbird and the squirrel; neither is she pure wisdom and feminine strength in the last."
Her first appearance as Nora would, technically, have to be in the early 1970s, as Marianne in Bergman's Scenes from a Marriage. The film is a thinly veiled, more modern version of Ibsen's domestic epic. Scenes tells the story of a brutally unhappy couple examining their relationship; he is older, she seems easily controlled by him. Like Nora, Marianne must put on appearances for the couple's friends and the general public.
By the end of the film, Marianne comes into her own. She finally lets her strong personality shine through, allowing her marriage to Johann disintegrate in the process. As Marianne says in the film "For my sisters and me, our entire upbringing was aimed at our being agreeable" -- something that could also ring true for Nora. It's as though she is able to, for the first time, be on her own without the punishing influence of her overbearing husband.
One other interesting detail of note is the fact that Scenes takes place mainly in the mundanely decorated living room of the middle-class couple. It's a nice representation of the couple's bourgeois normality. Early on in the film, Bergman even has Johann and Marianne returning from a performance of A Doll's House as if to really drive his point home.
Many Swedish film scholars would argue that Ullmann has played versions of Nora in just about all of her films with Bergman. In efforts such as Hour of the Wolf, Autumn Sonata, and even in Cries and Whispers, she essays variations of the sheltered woman-child wife, each creation seemingly fragile but ultimately steely.
Ullmann originally played the stage role of Nora in its native Norwegian language, and said she found it incredibly difficult to transition to English when she brought an acclaimed version of the play to Broadway in 1975. Nonetheless, she managed to overcome the language barrier with an acute, complex performance. The actress explains some of the challenges in working in both languages:
"Performing 'A Doll's House' in a foreign language, after having played it in Norwegian is extremely difficult for me. I set my alarm for 5 a.m. Read and read. Make a lot of changes in the translation because Nora's words are so full of meaning for me. I know them so well, and I think the English translation has missed a lot of what is Nora's distinctive quality.
One of the problems I have is 'washing' the Norwegian text from my head. It is essential for me now to think in English and I cannot leave the Norwegian associations behind me, I will never be able to manage this.
Here, I have to acquire a new set of images, a new grid of references; Nora in New York can never be the same as Nora in Oslo."
In her later life, as Ullmann left her relationship with Bergman, she abandoned acting for a new career as a stage and film director. Her long-planned big-screen version of Ibsen's play was never realized, but it was set to star Kate Winslet as a Nora for the new millennium, and co-star John Cusack as Helmer. It is a damn shame that this Doll's House expert was not allowed to give us yet another brilliant interpretation of this classic. After all, she knows this material better than anyone. She lived it.