Interviews

"Still It Keeps Haunting You": Thom Bell Revisits the Dionne Warwick Sessions

Dionne Warrick 1975 (publicity photo: Warner)

In an exclusive interview with PopMatters, Grammy-winning producer Thom Bell recalls bringing Dionne Warwick to number one and crafting her critically acclaimed "Track of the Cat".

Dionne Warwick is fluent in the parlance of soul, sophistication, and effortless cool. From the very beginning of her career, she mastered some of the most complex melodies ever composed. Musical innovators like Burt Bacharach, Thom Bell, Stevie Wonder, Barry Gibb, and Quincy Jones have all derived inspiration from Warwick's voice. "You'll know Dionne's voice out of a thousand voices," Bell exclaims. "That's how I can tell when you really have something superb -- I can close my eyes and know your voice anywhere. I love those kind of voices, man!"

However, Bell occupies a place all his own among the esteemed producers who've recorded the legendary vocalist over the years. During an interview at the Apollo Theater in October 2016, Warwick recalled the impact of "Then Came You" (1974), a song that Bell commissioned specifically for her and the Spinners. "Thom gave us a wonderful gift that also happened to be my very first number one recording -- ever," she declared.

Beyond crafting Warwick's first chart-topping hit, Bell produced an entire album for the vocalist, Track of the Cat (1975). Rolling Stone proclaimed it "her best album in years", considerable praise, given that Warwick had already released nearly two dozen albums between 1963 and 1975. Of course, the singer still had decades of albums and hit singles ahead of her, but Track of the Cat held a luster that's only become more radiant with the passage of time. In this exclusive interview with PopMatters, Bell retraces Warwick's "track" to the top and remembers his vision for a vocalist without peer.

New York's pop music scene of the late '50s and early '60s was virtually defined by the constellation of songwriters, producers, and musicians that orbited the Brill Building. Warwick emerged from a cadre of session vocalists who sang background for hit producers like Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller and cut demo records for songwriting teams who hustled their tunes to labels and publishing companies. Though based in Philadelphia, Bell was often called to New York for studio dates with Burt Bacharach, Luther Dixon, and King Curtis. "There were so many background singers," he says. "Most of those background singers couldn't sight-read. I said, 'Put me up front, Jack! If you can write it, I can sing it!' Dionne can also sing and read. She can do both."

Produced by Bacharach and Hal David, Presenting Dionne Warwick (1963) marked the singer's full-length debut for Scepter Records and established Warwick as a vocalist whose facility with pop, soul, and gospel sensibilities defied categorization. If anything, the music she recorded with Bacharach and David became a genre unto itself, often confounding musicians who backed Warwick on one-nighters across the country. "I worked with Dionne at the Uptown Theater in Philadelphia," says Bell. "The unit that played for her also played for the Coasters, the Isley Brothers, Little Anthony & the Imperials, Jerry Butler … I worked with all of them.

"I was the house pianist. You cannot hear a piano with an 18-piece band. Ain't gonna happen! I would be back there playing, banging my fingernails until they split, trying to get heard, but you couldn't hear me. When I finally got tired, I said, 'I'm done with this crap. I'm going to sit up there and write some songs while these guys are singing' because I knew they couldn't hear me!" [laughs]

At the time, Warwick's debut single "Don't Make Me Over" was climbing the charts. Her declaration at the song's climax -- "Accept me for what I am" -- sparked a lightning bolt across AM radio. Warwick conveyed a refreshingly bold sentiment for young women in a climate when Little Peggy March vowed "I Will Follow Him" and the Chiffons gushed "He's So Fine". In fact, exactly 12 months after "Don't Make Me Over" debuted on the Hot 100 in December 1962, Lesley Gore's "You Don't Own Me" charged the airwaves with another statement of female empowerment.

With astounding consistency, Warwick, Bacharach, and David created three-minute masterpieces that expanded the vernacular of pop music, drawing from styles that spanned classical and bossa nova. Make Way for Dionne Warwick (1964) furnished some of the trio's finest moments, including the Grammy-nominated "Walk On By", "A House Is Not a Home", "Reach Out for Me", and "You'll Never Get to Heaven (If You Break My Heart)". Bell relished the musicality of Warwick's songs. "Dionne had great records," he says. "'Promises, Promises' (1968) was a very well put-together, very well-written piece of music. You couldn't go on that recording session just leaving 'Piano 101'. If any one person made a mistake on that, then the whole band would have to stop.

"I gotta tell you, Bacharach and David are two of the greatest writers. They did classical things, and that's what I always wanted to do. People told me, 'Black people don't dig that kind of music.' I'd say, 'What do you mean? I'm black and I dig it. There's got to be more of me out there than just me.' When it comes to music, the hue of skin has nothing to do with likes or dislikes. Music is not something you wear. Music is something you feel."

Bell channeled that sensibility into his own productions for the Delfonics. In 1968, he scored his first Top Five pop hit as a producer with the group's "La-La Means I Love You". Interestingly, Warwick achieved a career benchmark of her own with a song she released that same year. Not only did her recording of "Do You Know the Way to San José" (1968) win the Grammy for "Best Contemporary Pop Vocal Performance, Female" in March 1969, she became the first artist to receive the Recording Academy's newly minted award for the pop field, conquering fellow nominees like Aretha Franklin and Barbra Streisand.

Two years later, Warwick won her second Grammy Award with "I'll Never Fall In Love Again" (1970) while Bell began producing another Philadelphia-based vocal group, the Stylistics. Bell and his writing partner Linda Creed fashioned silky and sumptuous tunes on The Stylistics (1971), the group's Avco debut that featured "Stop, Look, Listen (To Your Heart)", "People Make the World Go Round", and the gold-selling singles "You Are Everything" and "Betcha By Golly Wow".

Bell's winning streak continued with the Spinners. The group's career had all but stalled at Motown and their initial sides at Atlantic Records with producer Jimmy Roach lacked chemistry. In 1972, Bell brought the group to Philadelphia's Sigma Sound Studios and outfitted them with material penned by his stable of writers. His touch spawned three consecutive number one R&B singles for the Spinners: "I'll Be Around" (co-written by Bell with Phil Hurtt), "Could It Be I'm Falling In Love", and "One of a Kind (Love Affair)". Spinners (1973) crowned the top of the R&B chart for three weeks in May 1973 and was named "Soul Album of the Year" by Village Voice critic Robert Christgau. It would be the first of several full-length efforts Bell produced for the group throughout their tenure at Atlantic.

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Around the same time the Spinners signed with Atlantic, Warwick found a new label home at Warner Bros. Dionne (1972), the singer's first album for the company, was primed to begin a successful new chapter for the singer, but the reality told a different story. Warner granted minimal promotional support, further compounded by the fact that Bacharach & David, Warwick's collaborators of ten years, dissolved their partnership after the album was released.

Produced by former Motown songwriting trio Brian Holland, Lamont Dozier, and Eddie Holland, Just Being Myself (1973) met the same fate as the singer's Warner debut, despite a wealth of solid material. Warwick continued working with an array of producers, including Nick Ashford and Valerie Simpson, who'd also just signed with Warner Bros., but the recordings were ultimately shelved.

In the midst of his success with the Spinners and the Stylistics, plus his projects with Ronnie Dyson, vocal group New York City ("I'm Doin' Fine Now"), and his first production for Johnny Mathis, I'm Coming Home (1973), Bell received an invitation to see Warwick at Caesar's Palace. Even without a record on the charts, she remained one of the biggest attractions in Las Vegas. "They invited me out to sit with Dionne and listen to her," he recalls. "They wanted me to do an album with her. I didn't have the time -- there's only 24 hours in a day -- and I didn't want to give her any sloppy junk. If I can't give you the best, I won't bother you. I said, 'Let me go back and see what I can come up with.'

"I came up with a duet. I thought, That should satisfy what Dionne needs and what the Spinners need. In those days, I had writers working specifically for certain artists. I got with two of my writers, Sherman Marshall and Phillip Pugh. I said, 'I want you to write for Dionne and the Spinners. That's your job, period. Don't bring me nothing else.' They came to me with 'Then Came You'. It was a good song, but I just added a little icing on the cake. I don't think I've ever produced a song that I didn't re-write in some way."

The Spinners toured with Warwick for seven weeks throughout the summer of 1973, culminating with another of the singer's successful stands in Vegas. "At the last show, Thom came to see us," Warwick recalled during her interview at the Apollo. "He came upstairs to the dressing room after the show was over. He said, 'I have a wonderful surprise for you.' We all said, 'Great! What is it?' He said, 'It's the end of the tour and you had a wonderful time together. I got a song that I think you guys should record. It would be the perfect way to say bye-bye to each other.' It was a little song called 'Then Came You'." By year's end, news of the star pairing reached industry trades, with Billboard announcing the duet in its 15 December 1973 issue.

The interplay between Warwick and the Spinners on "Then Came You" generated a contagious kind of excitement. From harmonizing with Bobby Smith in the verses to trading ad libs with Philippé Wynne in the closing vamp, Warwick delivered a customarily strong performance. "It was amazing," she said. "We had the best time in the studio. Philippé was such an intricate part of that recording."

Wynne's soulful voice offered an appealing contrast to his duet partner. "Philippé could sing in any key, any time, day or night," says Bell. "He could make things up so fast, it'd make your head spin. If he did it ten times, he'd give it to you ten different ways. I said, 'Philippé, what I want you to do as you're singing is just think of Dionne as a feather. Think of her as your daughter. She's an angel. Don't sing to bore out of the sky. Keep it moderate, man. I want you to sing so she floats around you and you float around her.' I had them do a Marvin Gaye / Tammi Terrell thing. I had them looking at each other and singing to each other in the same booth."

"Then Came You" bowed on the Hot 100 the week ending 27 July 1974 and was subsequently featured on the Spinners' third Atlantic album New and Improved (1974). Three months later, it supplanted Billy Preston's "Nothing from Nothing" from the top and became both Warwick and the Spinners' first number one pop hit. Both artists were also rewarded with a gold single and would receive a Grammy nomination for "Best Pop Vocal by a Duo or Group" the following March. Bell himself made Grammy history when he won the Recording Academy's inaugural award for "Producer of the Year" in 1975.

Bell's production of "Just As Long As We Have Love" showcased Warwick and the Spinners in a more tranquil setting. Issued as the B-side to "Then Came You", the song featured a rare lead vocal by group member Henry Fambrough, whose sensitive phrasing complemented the more delicate textures of Warwick's voice. "Henry can really sing," says Bell. "He's got a gorgeous voice. One problem with Henry is he's got stage fright. Dionne could coax him along, so I put those two together. She was singing just as nice as he was singing." Written by Vinnie Barrett and Bruce Hawes, "Just As Long As We Have Love" would later appear on the Spinners' Pick of the Litter (1975).

Eager to capitalize on Warwick's latest smash, Warner titled the singer's third album Then Came You (1975). However, aside from the hit title track, producer Jerry Ragovoy oversaw the album's production. Fans and industry insiders had all expected a full set of duets between Warwick and the Spinners, but the project never materialized. Instead, Warwick's work with Ragovoy featured stylish, soul-inflected pop that landed the singer a guest appearance on Soul Train in May 1975. While "Take It From Me" made the R&B Top 30, and "Move Me No Mountain" contained a verve and vivacity that seemed destined for the charts, the album stirred only a modest ripple in the marketplace.

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In the wake of Malcolm Young's passing, Jesse Fink, author of The Youngs: The Brothers Who Built AC/DC, offers up his top 10 AC/DC songs, each seasoned with a dash of backstory.

Editor's Note: Originally published 30 July 2014.

10. “Bedlam in Belgium”
(Flick of the Switch, 1983)

This is a massively underrated barnstormer from the boys off the much-maligned (unfairly, I think) Flick of the Switch. The album was missing Mutt Lange, but the Youngs did have his very capable engineer, Tony Platt, as co-producer in the studio at Compass Point in the Bahamas. Tony’s a real pro. I think he did a perfectly fine job on this album, which also features the slamming “Nervous Shakedown”.

But what I find most interesting about “Bedlam in Belgium” is that it’s based on a fracas that broke out on stage in Kontich, Belgium, in 1977, involving Bon Scott, the rest of the band, and the local authorities. AC/DC had violated a noise curfew and things got hairy.

Yet Brian Johnson, more than half a decade later, wrote the lyrics with such insight; almost as if he was the one getting walloped by the Belgian police: He gave me a crack in the back with his gun / Hurt me so bad I could feel the blood run. Cracking lyrics, Bon-esque. Unfortunately for Brian, he was removed from lyric-writing duties from The Razors Edge (1990) onwards. All songs up to and including 2008’s Black Ice are Young/Young compositions.

Who’ll be writing the songs on the new album AC/DC has been working on in Vancouver? AC/DC fans can’t wait to hear them. Nor can I.

 
9. “Spellbound”
(For Those About to Rock We Salute You, 1981)

"Spellbound" really stands as a lasting monument to the genius of Mutt Lange, a man whose finely tuned ear and attention to detail filed the rough edges of Vanda & Young–era AC/DC and turned this commercially underperforming band for Atlantic Records into one of the biggest in the world. On “Spellbound” AC/DC sounds truly majestic. Lange just amplifies their natural power an extra notch. It’s crisp sounding, laden with dynamics and just awesome when Angus launches into his solo.

“Spellbound” is the closer on For Those About to Rock We Salute You, the last album Lange did with AC/DC, so chronologically it’s a significant song; it marks the end of an important era. For Those About to Rock was an unhappy experience for a lot of people. There was a lot of blood being spilled behind the scenes. It went to number one in the US but commercially was a massive disappointment after the performance of Back in Black. Much of the blame lies at the feet of Atlantic Records, then under Doug Morris, who made the decision to exhume an album they’d shelved in 1976, Dirty Deeds Done Dirt Cheap, and release it in-between Back in Black and For Those About to Rock.

In the book Phil Carson, who signed AC/DC to Atlantic, calls it “one of the most crass decisions ever made by a record-company executive” and believes it undermined sales of For Those About to Rock.


 
8. “Down Payment Blues”
(Powerage, 1978)

This is one of the best songs off Powerage -- perhaps the high point of Bon Scott as a lyricist -- but also significant for its connection to “Back in Black”. There are key lines in it: Sitting in my Cadillac / Listening to my radio / Suzy baby get on in / Tell me where she wanna go / I'm living in a nightmare / She's looking like a wet dream / I got myself a Cadillac / But I can't afford the gasoline.

Bon loved writing about Cadillacs. He mentions them in “Rocker” off the Australian version of TNT and the international release of Dirty Deeds Done Dirt Cheap: Got slicked black hair / Skin tight jeans / Cadillac car and a teenage dream.

Then you get to “Back in Black”. Bon’s dead but the lyrics have this spooky connection to “Down Payment Blues”: Back in the back / Of a Cadillac / Number one with a bullet, I’m a power pack.

Why was Brian singing about riding around in Cadillacs? He’d just joined AC/DC, wasn’t earning a lot and was on his best behavior. Bon had a reason to be singing about money. He was writing all the songs and just had a breakthrough album with Highway to Hell. Which begs the question: Could Bon also have written or part written the lyrics to “Back in Black”?

Bon’s late mother Isa said in 2006: “The last time we saw him was Christmas ’79, two months before he died. [Bon] told me he was working on the Back in Black album and that that was going to be it; that he was going to be a millionaire.”

 
7. “You Shook Me All Night Long”
(Back in Black, 1980)

Everyone knows and loves this song; it’s played everywhere. Shania Twain and Celine Dion have covered it. It’s one of AC/DC’s standbys. But who wrote it?

Former Mötley Crüe manager Doug Thaler is convinced Bon Scott, who’d passed away before the album was recorded, being replaced by Brian Johnson, wrote the lyrics. In fact he told me, “You can bet your life that Bon Scott wrote the lyrics to ‘You Shook Me All Night Long’.” That’s a pretty strong statement from a guy who used to be AC/DC’s American booking agent and knew the band intimately. I look into this claim in some depth in the book and draw my own conclusions.

I’m convinced Bon wrote it. In my opinion only Bon would have written a line like “She told me to come but I was already there.” Brian never matched the verve or wit of Bon in his lyrics and it’s why I think so much of AC/DC’s mid-'80s output suffers even when the guitar work of the Youngs was as good as it ever was.

But what’s also really interesting about this song in light of the recent hullabaloo over Taurus and Led Zeppelin is how much the opening guitar riff sounds similar to Head East’s “Never Been Any Reason”. I didn’t know a hell of a lot about Head East before I started working on this book, but came across “Never Been Any Reason” in the process of doing my research and was blown away when I heard it for the first time. AC/DC opened for Head East in Milwaukee in 1977. So the two bands crossed paths.

 
6. “Rock ’N’ Roll Damnation”
(Powerage, 1978)

It’s hard to get my head around the fact Mick Wall, the British rock writer and author of AC/DC: Hell Ain’t a Bad Place to Be, called this “a two-bit piece of head-bopping guff.” Not sure what track he was listening to when he wrote that -- maybe he was having a bad day -- but for me it’s one of the last of AC/DC’s classic boogie tracks and probably the best.

Mark Evans loves it almost as much as he loves “Highway to Hell". It has everything you want in an AC/DC song plus shakers, tambourines and handclaps, a real Motown touch that George Young and Harry Vanda brought to bear on the recording. They did something similar with the John Paul Young hit “Love Is in the Air”. Percussion was an underlying feature of many early AC/DC songs. This one really grooves. I never get tired of hearing it.

“Rock ’n’ Roll Damnation” was AC/DC’s first hit in the UK charts and a lot of the credit has to go to Michael Klenfner, best known as the fat guy with the moustache who stops Jake and Elwood backstage in the final reel of The Blues Brothers and offers them a recording contract. He was senior vice-president at Atlantic at the time, and insisted the band go back and record a radio-worthy single after they delivered the first cut of Powerage to New York.

Michael was a real champion of AC/DC behind the scenes at Atlantic, and never got the recognition he was due while he was still alive (he passed away in 2009). He ended up having a falling out with Atlantic president Jerry Greenberg over the choice of producer for Highway to Hell and got fired. But it was Klenfner who arguably did more for the band than anyone else while they were at Atlantic. His story deserves to be known by the fans.

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