Reviews

On Robert Walser's Idiosyncratic, Whimsical, Sly, and Enchanting Works

Walser's attentiveness to the world's capacity for beauty and kindness in a time of brutality is the most interesting aspect of this book.


Girlfriends, Ghosts, and Other Stories

Publisher: New York Review of Books
Length: 192 pages
Author: Robert Walser
Price: $15.95
Format: Paperback
Publication date: 2016-09
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“Better an honest shadow than to triumph in life and be a genius.”

-- Robert Walser

The brief biography provided in the New York Review of Books edition of Robert Walser’s Girlfriends, Ghosts, and Other Stories is as intriguing as one of Walser’s microstories. Born in 1878 to a German-speaking family in Biel, Switzerland, it says that Walser “left school at fourteen and led a wandering, precarious existence”. It concludes by saying that in 1933 Walser stopped writing and “entered a sanatorium -- where he remained for the rest of his life”.

It’s a quiet, modest biographical statement; the kind that befits the writer of the 81 idiosyncratic, whimsical, sly, and enchanting prose pieces and feuilletons that are collected in this book, translated from the German by Tom Whalen with assistance from Nicole Köngeter and Annette Wiesner. But it was during these years, when it seemed he did nothing but lead a wandering, precarious existence, that he wrote the novels for which he is now known, like Jakob van Gunten (1909), The Robber (Der Räuber, 1925), and The Tanners (1907).

Having never read his novels or poems or plays or dramalets or short stories (his oeuvre is surprisingly vast and prolific for a man who consistently writes about stopping to smell the roses), I entered the Walserian world fresh and without preconceptions or expectations. While working a series of jobs after an unsuccessful attempt to become an actor, Walser wrote poems and stories that began appearing in newspapers and magazines. He became known for these brief, allusive sketches.

The sketches that are presented here were written between 1907 and 1933. It opens with the irreverent and cheeky “The Morning”, which depicts with a satirical eye a Monday in the working life of bank clerks. It immediately conveys the spirit of a more impish Bartleby as reenacted in the character of Helbling: “He sighs; only ten little, tiny, thin, delicate, spiky minutes have trickled past, and before him loom fat, indifferent hours. He tries to see if it’s possible to grasp the idea that now he must work. The effort fails, but at least it’s shifted the face of the clock a little.” The Walserian spirit is captured in the sentence: “He tries to see if it’s possible to grasp the idea that now he must work.” It’s not a mere retelling of a character’s dislike of work, or his unwillingness to work, but of a character’s attempt to think his way out of his obvious dislike of a particular kind of work.

In this way, Walser’s prose sketches are an attempt at representing the act of thinking. Many of these pieces seem conventional or suitably literary; the contemplation of the beauty of nature, for example, or a keen flâneur’s eye trained on the customers of a coffee shop, but what makes them different and off-centre is a kind of gleeful energy that runs through them. Walser writes not so much to give definitive judgments or pronouncements, but to capture his mood or thoughts about the subject in the very moment of its formation.

Walser's writing is bird-like, ambiguous, flitting from one idea to another. The tone is light and swift-footed, but it's a fugitive kind of lightness; underneath, Walser is burrowing into some deep stuff and can often be unsettling. It's necessary to read him closely or one is likely to miss altogether the swift dips and turns of his mind. In “The Philosopher”, for example, Walser writes: “Some consider him unique among his peers. He lives, yet it’s as if he’s dead. Whoever woke him up probably would deserve a reward.” The piece concludes with a seemingly modest but weighty sentence: “A pity that his long reflections made him lose so many things.”

What struck me the most at this point was that many of the pieces in the first half of the book were written during the First World War, but Walser does not once write about it. Instead, there are constant references to the beauty of nature, of the minuscule things one notices on a daily basis, and most importantly, the kindness of people. In the Walserian world, a sense of being in the world is enhanced when people and nature itself are friendly, gentle, and tender. "A heaven opens when people are kind to one another,” he writes in the hopeful yet elegiac “Autumn Afternoon”, where he recounts the delightful, affirming sights of the countryside. “In the wonderfully resounding countryside, everything becomes more and more beautiful. Each step led into another loveliness. It was as if I were writing, dreaming, fantasizing.”

Suddenly, the reader is not sure of what’s at work in this piece -- memory or imagination. Walser concludes this sketch by suggesting that there might not be a difference: “They were glorious sounds, at least so I imagined. How easy it is to imagine something beautiful on a quiet evening walk.” The pieces that dwell on beauty in the midst of war might have been an act of memory or imagination or both. It performs a certain kind of work for the reader that the reader might not have been able to perform for herself: it thinks of a world where, as he writes in “Lake Piece”, “the whole world was like kindness itself, and one could no longer find fault with life, with human existence.” In one of the only pieces where he dwells in the dark, written in 1917, he says, "And the people were poor, pale, sick, storm-driven slaves lashed into terror. No one trusted anyone anymore." For Walser, hope ends when people stop being kind to one another.

It feels naïve and childish, a sort of idealist and daydreamer’s version of peace, but because these were written in the midst of carnage, it suggests a stance, a resolute notion to believe in people. This typical Walserian focus on kindness and a general sense of hospitality is a kind of salve. Far from being a retreat from serious matters and "real life", it seems to suggest a commitment to people and the world at a time when it would have been easy to simply write about how bad things were. This recommitment to the world and an alert attentiveness to its capacity for beauty and kindness in a time of brutality is the most interesting aspect of this book and Walser's particular worldview.

As his biography states, he entered a sanatorium in 1933 after suffering bouts of anxiety, and "stopped writing". We can't be entirely sure of that. To be more precise, it would be better to say that he stopped writing for publication. “Better an honest shadow than to triumph in life and be a genius,” he writes in “Shadow”. Dispensing with ambition, he wanted to be with the people, as Tom Whalen explains in his afterword, by simply existing as just another patient in the institution. In one of his best sketches, an effortless piece of “confessional” writing titled “Walser on Walser”, he writes: “Thus I wish to go unnoticed. Should one nevertheless want to notice me, I for my part won’t notice the noticers.”

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In Americana music the present is female. Two-thirds of our year-end list is comprised of albums by women. Here, then, are the women (and a few men) who represented the best in Americana in 2017.

If a single moment best illustrates the current divide between Americana music and mainstream country music, it was Sturgill Simpson busking in the street outside the CMA Awards in Nashville. While Simpson played his guitar and sang in a sort of renegade-outsider protest, Garth Brooks was onstage lip-syncindg his way to Entertainer of the Year. Americana music is, of course, a sprawling range of roots genres that incorporates traditional aspects of country, blues, soul, bluegrass, etc., but often represents an amalgamation or reconstitution of those styles. But one common aspect of the music that Simpson appeared to be championing during his bit of street theater is the independence, artistic purity, and authenticity at the heart of Americana music. Clearly, that spirit is alive and well in the hundreds of releases each year that could be filed under Americana's vast umbrella.

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Features

The Best Country Music of 2017

still from Midland "Drinkin' Problem" video

There are many fine country musicians making music that is relevant and affecting in these troubled times. Here are ten of our favorites.

Year to year, country music as a genre sometimes seems to roll on without paying that much attention to what's going on in the world (with the exception of bro-country singers trying to adopt the latest hip-hop slang). That can feel like a problem in a year when 58 people are killed and 546 are injured by gun violence at a country-music concert – a public-relations issue for a genre that sees many of its stars outright celebrating the NRA. Then again, these days mainstream country stars don't seem to do all that well when they try to pivot quickly to comment on current events – take Keith Urban's muddled-at-best 2017 single "Female", as but one easy example.

Nonetheless, there are many fine country musicians making music that is relevant and affecting in these troubled times. There are singers tackling deep, universal matters of the heart and mind. Artists continuing to mess around with a genre that can sometimes seem fixed, but never really is. Musicians and singers have been experimenting within the genre forever, and continue to. As Charlie Worsham sings, "let's try something new / for old time's sake." - Dave Heaton

10. Lillie Mae – Forever and Then Some (Third Man)

The first two songs on Lillie Mae's debut album are titled "Over the Hill and Through the Woods" and "Honky Tonks and Taverns". The music splits the difference between those settings, or rather bears the marks of both. Growing up in a musical family, playing fiddle in a sibling bluegrass act that once had a country radio hit, Lillie Mae roots her songs in musical traditions without relying on them as a gimmick or costume. The music feels both in touch with the past and very current. Her voice and perspective shine, carrying a singular sort of deep melancholy. This is sad, beautiful music that captures the points of view of people carrying weighty burdens and trying to find home. - Dave Heaton



9. Sunny Sweeney – Trophy (Aunt Daddy)

Sunny Sweeney is on her fourth album; each one has felt like it didn't get the attention it deserved. She's a careful singer and has a capacity for combining humor and likability with old-fashioned portrayal of deep sadness. Beginning in a bar and ending at a cemetery, Trophy projects deep sorrow more thoroughly than her past releases, as good as they were. In between, there are pills, bad ideas, heartbreak, and a clever, true-tearjerker ballad voicing a woman's longing to have children. -- Dave Heaton



8. Kip Moore – Slowheart (MCA Nashville)

The bro-country label never sat easy with Kip Moore. The man who gave us "Somethin' 'Bout a Truck" has spent the last few years trying to distance himself from the beer and tailgate crowd. Mission accomplished on the outstanding Slowheart, an album stuffed with perfectly produced hooks packaged in smoldering, synthy Risky Business guitars and a rugged vocal rasp that sheds most of the drawl from his delivery. Moore sounds determined to help redefine contemporary country music with hard nods toward both classic rock history and contemporary pop flavors. With its swirling guitar textures, meticulously catchy songcraft, and Moore's career-best performances (see the spare album-closing "Guitar Man"), Slowheart raises the bar for every would-be bro out there. -- Steve Leftridge



7. Chris Stapleton – From a Room: Volume 1 (Mercury Nashville)

If Chris Stapleton didn't really exist, we would have to invent him—a burly country singer with hair down to his nipples and a chainsaw of a soul-slinging voice who writes terrific throwback outlaw-indebted country songs and who wholesale rejects modern country trends. Stapleton's recent rise to festival headliner status is one of the biggest country music surprises in recent years, but his fans were relieved this year that his success didn't find him straying from his traditional wheelhouse. The first installment of From a Room once again finds Stapleton singing the hell out of his sturdy original songs. A Willie Nelson cover is not unwelcome either, as he unearths a semi-obscure one. The rest is made up of first-rate tales of commonality: Whether he's singing about hard-hurtin' breakups or resorting to smoking them stems, we've all been there. -- Steve Leftridge



6. Carly Pearce – Every Little Thing (Big Machine)

Many of the exciting young emerging artists in country music these days are women, yet the industry on the whole is still unwelcoming and unforgiving towards them. Look at who's getting the most radio play, for one. Carly Pearce had a radio hit with "Every Little Thing", a heartbreaking ballad about moments in time that in its pace itself tries to stop time. Every Little Thing the album is the sort of debut that deserves full attention. From start to finish it's a thoroughly riveting, rewarding work by a singer with presence and personality. There's a lot of humor, lust, blues, betrayal, beauty and sentimentality, in proper proportions. One of the best songs is a call for a lover to make her "feel something", even if it's anger or hatred. Indeed, the album doesn't shy away from a variety of emotions. Even when she treads into common tropes of mainstream country love songs, there's room for revelations and surprises. – Dave Heaton

From genre-busting electronic music to new highs in the ever-evolving R&B scene, from hip-hop and Americana to rock and pop, 2017's music scenes bestowed an embarrassment of riches upon us.


60. White Hills - Stop Mute Defeat (Thrill Jockey)

White Hills epic '80s callback Stop Mute Defeat is a determined march against encroaching imperial darkness; their eyes boring into the shadows for danger but they're aware that blinding lights can kill and distort truth. From "Overlord's" dark stomp casting nets for totalitarian warnings to "Attack Mode", which roars in with the tribal certainty that we can survive the madness if we keep our wits, the record is a true and timely win for Dave W. and Ego Sensation. Martin Bisi and the poster band's mysterious but relevant cool make a great team and deliver one of their least psych yet most mind destroying records to date. Much like the first time you heard Joy Division or early Pigface, for example, you'll experience being startled at first before becoming addicted to the band's unique microcosm of dystopia that is simultaneously corrupting and seducing your ears. - Morgan Y. Evans

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8

Which is the draw, the art or the artist? Critic Rachel Corbett examines the intertwined lives of two artists of two different generations and nationalities who worked in two starkly different media.

Artist biographies written for a popular audience necessarily involve compromise. On the one hand, we are only interested in the lives of artists because we are intrigued, engaged, and moved by their work. The confrontation with a work of art is an uncanny experience. We are drawn to, enraptured and entranced by, absorbed in the contemplation of an object. Even the performative arts (music, theater, dance) have an objective quality to them. In watching a play, we are not simply watching people do things; we are attending to the play as a thing that is more than the collection of actions performed. The play seems to have an existence beyond the human endeavor that instantiates it. It is simultaneously more and less than human: more because it's superordinate to human action and less because it's a mere object, lacking the evident subjectivity we prize in the human being.

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