Reviews

How Brands Become Icons: The Principles of Cultural Branding by Douglas B. Holt

Vince Carducci

More than merely reflecting people and the times in which they live, iconic brands offer myths that help resolve the contradictions of society.


How Brands Become Icons

Publisher: Harvard Business School Press
Length: 263
Subtitle: The Principles of Cultural Branding
Price: $29.95
Author: Douglas B. Holt
US publication date: 2004-09
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The Great Idea in advertising is far more than the sum of the recognition scores, the ratings and all the other superficial indicators of its success; it is in the realm of myth, to which measurements cannot apply."
-- Leo Bogart

In the ad biz, "The Big Idea" is the Holy Grail, the creative solution that in a few words or images sums up the compelling reason to plop down your hard-earned cash for something you may not have known you even needed. Big Ideas have something called "legs"; they can be called upon again and again in different ways. Some Big Ideas include: "The Pepsi Generation," "Where's the beef?," "Just do it" and the Energizer Bunny.

In the academy, theorists are also on the lookout for the Big Idea. There, the Big Idea is called a "paradigm shift." Among other things, it seeks something known as "parsimony," a simple concept or equation that explains a lot. Rational choice, that we naturally seek pleasure and avoid pain, is the Big Idea of classical economics. Who owns the means of production and the social relations that result is the Big Idea of Marxism. The relationship of matter to the speed of light is the Big Idea of Einstein's Theory of Relativity. The biggest of the Big Ideas of recent times is deconstruction, which underlies much of what we call theories of postmodernism.

In his new book, How Brands Become Icons: The Principles of Cultural Branding, marketing theorist Douglas B. Holt proposes a Big Idea. Simply put, according to Holt, the brands that attain the status of icons in consumer society operate at the cultural level. And more than merely reflecting people and the times in which they live, iconic brands offer myths that help resolve the contradictions of society; they're channels for expressing desire and relieving anxiety.

The theory of cultural branding supplants prevailing marketing paradigms, Holt argues. Concepts like mind-share, emotional branding, viral marketing and cool-hunting can't entirely explain the success of iconic brands like Nike, Mountain Dew and Harley Davidson. The mind-share and emotional branding paradigms claim to measure the unique attributes particular brands have in the minds of consumers. Because they're driven from the top down, they often fail because they seek a "brand essence" that is universal and unable to respond to changing markets. Viral marketing and cool-hunting understand brands as leading indicators of ever-changing consumer tastes. But they can't position a brand beyond the latest fad because they're too driven from the bottom up with no larger strategy than identifying what may or may not be hip among a particular consumer segment. On the other hand, cultural branding consistently shows why some marketing campaigns succeed while others fail, across product categories and for a single brand over the ups and downs of market fluctuation.

Holt builds his theory from what are known in the research biz as extended case studies. He devises a method he terms "brand genealogy" to look at how brands fare in the marketplace over long periods of time. For this study, he surveyed thousands of ads for several major brands, overlaying media placements on top of five decades of American political, economic and social trends. He also looked at other cultural texts like movies and TV shows. The result is not only a breakthrough business study on how branding works, but a portrait of America since the end of the Second World War.

What Holt finds is that those brands that offer solutions to the crises of American society gain market share. And when those brands are out of sync, they sink regardless of how much money is spent promoting them. Iconic brands create what Holt terms "myth markets," the opportunities for which arise when national ideology conflicts with social reality. Myth markets are based in populist worlds, the bedrock of culture. Some of the enduring myths in American culture are those of self-reliance, manifest destiny and America as the land of opportunity. Populist worlds include sports, the Wild West and the immigrant experience.

Myth markets succeed by providing mechanisms for working out ideological conflict through narratives set in populist worlds. Thus when America's high-wage industrial base was being scuttled with the first waves of outsourcing in the 1970s, Budweiser's extolling of the virtues of the traditional artisan served up a shot of old-fashioned respect with every brewski to embattled blue-collar men. When outsourcing began to make its way up the corporate ladder into the white-collar world two decades later, the genuinely amateurish pitches of Snapple bestowed a nonconformist badge of honor for slackers to carry with them all the way to their McJobs.

Not that the owners of these brands necessarily knew what they were doing. For example, Bud somehow got sidetracked, pulled aimlessly along by Clydesdales as they clopped down the road to lower market share. And when Quaker Oats Company bought out Snapple, they brought in "professionals" who proceeded to destroy everything the brand stood for.

The problem, according to Holt, is that corporate brand managers are typically MBAs who know all about revenue projections, returns on investment, media costs-per-point and such, but not a damn thing about the stories and life experiences that actually compel people to buy. What's more, the methods they use to understand consumers are equally flawed by rational theories that reduce everything to numbers that can be entered into an Excel spreadsheet and summarily analyzed with the click of a mouse, just like Ben Stiller's ultimately futile effort to use an actuarial risk-model computer program to figure out whether his life partner should be Debra Lessing or Jennifer Aniston in last year's movie Along Came Polly.

Holt is a leader in the field of marketing and knows as much as anyone when it comes to consumer society. He currently teaches at Oxford University in England and was until recently on the faculty of Harvard Business School. He also has industry experience as a brand manager. Yet he doesn't have much faith in quantitative market research. Not one of his case studies shows that asking consumers what they want actually helps improve market share. In fact, exactly the opposite may happen because too many of what he terms "feeders" (the fickle wannabes who use brands under the influence of their true devotees, whom he terms "insiders" and "followers") may get into the research sample and skew the results in the wrong direction.

Indeed if there's any lesson to be learned, it's that history shows creativity sells. And contrary to a lot of current marketing theory, it's breakthrough advertising, which is to say the Big Idea, that has done the most to construct the myth markets consumers literally and figuratively buy into. In part this is because, of all those involved in the process, the creative types at ad agencies, many of them frustrated artists themselves, are the ones who are most in touch with populist worlds by their own consumption of books, music, film, extreme sports, etc. This is also why ad agencies turn over creative staff so frequently: they continually need fresh meat to grind through the mill in the production of consumption. The exception is Harley Davidson, which became iconic while flubbing their advertising pitches for years. Their story, often cited by brand consultants for all the wrong reasons according to Holt, demonstrates how cultural texts, such as movies and music, and the media work as coauthors of mythic worlds in which brands exist in the popular imagination.

How Brands Become Icons is intended to be a manual for brand managers and their agencies, a theoretical model and a set of tactical steps for fine-tuning marketing efforts to be more effective. Yet one can't help but see an implicit critique of consumer society lurking between the lines. Some of the more lively writing in the book is the social history Holt provides as the backdrop for the marketing campaigns that channeled the anxiety of everyday Americans into consumer desire, transforming their discontent into cash-register sales without ever really addressing the root causes. (As Chicago bluesman Jimmy Johnson sings, "I drank a dozen Buds, but I don't feel any wiser.")

When it comes down to it, branding is basically ideology, a collection of myths manufactured by companies to stoke the fires of capitalism. Brands, iconic and otherwise, sell us the idea that we can make our problems go away simply by buying things. The irony is that in America, consumer ideology is our culture, the very glue that binds us to one another and helps get us through the day. But of course that's another Big Idea.

In Americana music the present is female. Two-thirds of our year-end list is comprised of albums by women. Here, then, are the women (and a few men) who represented the best in Americana in 2017.

If a single moment best illustrates the current divide between Americana music and mainstream country music, it was Sturgill Simpson busking in the street outside the CMA Awards in Nashville. While Simpson played his guitar and sang in a sort of renegade-outsider protest, Garth Brooks was onstage lip-syncindg his way to Entertainer of the Year. Americana music is, of course, a sprawling range of roots genres that incorporates traditional aspects of country, blues, soul, bluegrass, etc., but often represents an amalgamation or reconstitution of those styles. But one common aspect of the music that Simpson appeared to be championing during his bit of street theater is the independence, artistic purity, and authenticity at the heart of Americana music. Clearly, that spirit is alive and well in the hundreds of releases each year that could be filed under Americana's vast umbrella.

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The Best Country Music of 2017

still from Midland "Drinkin' Problem" video

There are many fine country musicians making music that is relevant and affecting in these troubled times. Here are ten of our favorites.

Year to year, country music as a genre sometimes seems to roll on without paying that much attention to what's going on in the world (with the exception of bro-country singers trying to adopt the latest hip-hop slang). That can feel like a problem in a year when 58 people are killed and 546 are injured by gun violence at a country-music concert – a public-relations issue for a genre that sees many of its stars outright celebrating the NRA. Then again, these days mainstream country stars don't seem to do all that well when they try to pivot quickly to comment on current events – take Keith Urban's muddled-at-best 2017 single "Female", as but one easy example.

Nonetheless, there are many fine country musicians making music that is relevant and affecting in these troubled times. There are singers tackling deep, universal matters of the heart and mind. Artists continuing to mess around with a genre that can sometimes seem fixed, but never really is. Musicians and singers have been experimenting within the genre forever, and continue to. As Charlie Worsham sings, "let's try something new / for old time's sake." - Dave Heaton

10. Lillie Mae – Forever and Then Some (Third Man)

The first two songs on Lillie Mae's debut album are titled "Over the Hill and Through the Woods" and "Honky Tonks and Taverns". The music splits the difference between those settings, or rather bears the marks of both. Growing up in a musical family, playing fiddle in a sibling bluegrass act that once had a country radio hit, Lillie Mae roots her songs in musical traditions without relying on them as a gimmick or costume. The music feels both in touch with the past and very current. Her voice and perspective shine, carrying a singular sort of deep melancholy. This is sad, beautiful music that captures the points of view of people carrying weighty burdens and trying to find home. - Dave Heaton



9. Sunny Sweeney – Trophy (Aunt Daddy)

Sunny Sweeney is on her fourth album; each one has felt like it didn't get the attention it deserved. She's a careful singer and has a capacity for combining humor and likability with old-fashioned portrayal of deep sadness. Beginning in a bar and ending at a cemetery, Trophy projects deep sorrow more thoroughly than her past releases, as good as they were. In between, there are pills, bad ideas, heartbreak, and a clever, true-tearjerker ballad voicing a woman's longing to have children. -- Dave Heaton



8. Kip Moore – Slowheart (MCA Nashville)

The bro-country label never sat easy with Kip Moore. The man who gave us "Somethin' 'Bout a Truck" has spent the last few years trying to distance himself from the beer and tailgate crowd. Mission accomplished on the outstanding Slowheart, an album stuffed with perfectly produced hooks packaged in smoldering, synthy Risky Business guitars and a rugged vocal rasp that sheds most of the drawl from his delivery. Moore sounds determined to help redefine contemporary country music with hard nods toward both classic rock history and contemporary pop flavors. With its swirling guitar textures, meticulously catchy songcraft, and Moore's career-best performances (see the spare album-closing "Guitar Man"), Slowheart raises the bar for every would-be bro out there. -- Steve Leftridge



7. Chris Stapleton – From a Room: Volume 1 (Mercury Nashville)

If Chris Stapleton didn't really exist, we would have to invent him—a burly country singer with hair down to his nipples and a chainsaw of a soul-slinging voice who writes terrific throwback outlaw-indebted country songs and who wholesale rejects modern country trends. Stapleton's recent rise to festival headliner status is one of the biggest country music surprises in recent years, but his fans were relieved this year that his success didn't find him straying from his traditional wheelhouse. The first installment of From a Room once again finds Stapleton singing the hell out of his sturdy original songs. A Willie Nelson cover is not unwelcome either, as he unearths a semi-obscure one. The rest is made up of first-rate tales of commonality: Whether he's singing about hard-hurtin' breakups or resorting to smoking them stems, we've all been there. -- Steve Leftridge



6. Carly Pearce – Every Little Thing (Big Machine)

Many of the exciting young emerging artists in country music these days are women, yet the industry on the whole is still unwelcoming and unforgiving towards them. Look at who's getting the most radio play, for one. Carly Pearce had a radio hit with "Every Little Thing", a heartbreaking ballad about moments in time that in its pace itself tries to stop time. Every Little Thing the album is the sort of debut that deserves full attention. From start to finish it's a thoroughly riveting, rewarding work by a singer with presence and personality. There's a lot of humor, lust, blues, betrayal, beauty and sentimentality, in proper proportions. One of the best songs is a call for a lover to make her "feel something", even if it's anger or hatred. Indeed, the album doesn't shy away from a variety of emotions. Even when she treads into common tropes of mainstream country love songs, there's room for revelations and surprises. – Dave Heaton

From genre-busting electronic music to new highs in the ever-evolving R&B scene, from hip-hop and Americana to rock and pop, 2017's music scenes bestowed an embarrassment of riches upon us.


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